DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED IN THIS CODE
The particular usage of a few other words, not defined in the Code, is also indicated; these are italicized in the list below and are accompanied by an editorial explanation of their use.
admixture. [Not defined] – something mixed in, especially a minor ingredient; used for components of a gathering that represent a taxon or taxa other than that intended by the collector and, because the admixture is disregarded, do not prevent the gathering, or part thereof, from being a type specimen (Art. 8.2).
affirmation. The adoption in a publication that did not use a largely mechanical method of selection of a choice of type that had been made using such a method and that had not in the interval been superseded (Art. 10.5). Choices of type that have been so affirmed can no longer be superseded (see also superseded).
alternative names. Two or more different names based on the same type accepted simultaneously for the same taxon by the same author and accepted as alternatives by that author in the same publication (Art. 36.3) (see also nomen alternativum).
analysis. A figure or group of figures, commonly separate from the main illustration of the organism (though usually on the same page or plate), showing details aiding identification, with or without a separate caption (Art. 38.9; see also Art. 38.10).
anamorph. A mitotic asexual morph in pleomorphic fungi (Art. F.8 Notes 1 and 2).
ascription. The direct association of the name of a person or persons with a new name or description or diagnosis of a taxon (Art. 46.3).
attributed. [Not defined] – regarded as belonging to or produced by a person or a taxon, e.g. a name attributed to its author(s) as determined by Art. 46, a feature attributed to a taxon (Art. 40.5), or a specimen attributed to a taxon (Art. 26 Ex. 3 and 6).
automatic typification. (1) Typification of a nomenclaturally superfluous and illegitimate name by the type of the name (the replaced synonym) that itself or the epithet of which ought to have been adopted under the rules (Art. 7.5). (2) Typification of the name of a taxon above the rank of genus by the type of the generic name on which it is based (Art. 10.9 and 10.10).
autonym. The automatically established name of a subdivision of a genus or of an infraspecific taxon that includes the type of the adopted, legitimate name of the genus or species, respectively. Its final epithet repeats unaltered the generic name or specific epithet and is not followed by an author citation (Art. 22.1 and 26.1). Autonyms need not be effectively published nor comply with the provisions for valid publication (Art. 32.1), they are automatically established, at any given rank, by the first instance of valid publication at that rank of a name of a subdivision of a genus under a legitimate generic name or of a name of an infraspecific taxon under a legitimate species name (Art. 22.3 and 26.3). [Autonyms are not allowed under illegitimate names of genera or species (Art. 22.5 and 27.2); nor do they exist above the rank of genus.]
available. [Not defined] – applied to an epithet in a name (Art. 11.4, 11.5, and F.3.7), the type of which falls within the circumscription of the taxon under consideration and where the use of the epithet would not be contrary to the rules (see also available name).
available name. A name published under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature with a status equivalent to that of a validly published name under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Art. 45 Ex. 1 footnote).
avowed substitute. See replacement name.
basionym. The legitimate, previously published name on which a new combination or name at new rank is based. The basionym does not itself have a basionym; it provides the final epithet, name, or stem of the new combination or name at new rank (Art. 6.10) (see also name at new rank, new combination).
binary combination (binomial). A generic name combined with a specific epithet to form a species name (Art. 23.1) (see also combination).
binary designation. [Not defined] – an apparent binary combination that has not been validly published (see also Art. 6.3) (see also designation).
binding decision. A recommendation made by the General Committee and ratified by an International Botanical Congress on (1) whether or not a name is validly published (Art. 38.4) or (2) whether or not names are to be treated as homonyms (Art. 53.4). Binding decisions are listed in (1) App. VI or (2) App. VII.
binomial. See binary combination.
combinatio nova (comb. nov.). See new combination.
combination. A name of a taxon below the rank of genus, consisting of the name of a genus combined with one or two epithets (Art. 6.7).
compound. A name or epithet that combines elements derived from two or more Greek or Latin words; a regular compound is one in which a noun or adjective in a non-final position appears as a modified stem (Art. 60.10) (see also pseudocompound).
confusingly similar names. Orthographically similar names at the rank of genus or below that are likely to be confused and are to be treated as homonyms if heterotypic (Art. 53.2 and 53.3) or as orthographical variants if homotypic (Art. 61.5). Binding decisions may be made on whether or not the former are to be treated as homonyms (Art. 53.4 and App. VII) (see also homonym).
conserved name (nomen conservandum). (1) A name of a family, genus, or species, or in certain cases a name of a subdivision of a genus or of an infraspecific taxon, declared legitimate, even though it may have been illegitimate when published, and taking precedence over other specified names even if it lacks priority (Art. 14.1–14.7, 14.10, App. II, III, and IV). (2) A name for which the type, orthography, or gender has been fixed by the conservation process (Art. 14.8, 14.9, 14.11, App. III, and IV).
correct name. The name that must be adopted in accordance with the rules for a taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank (Art. 6.6, 11.1, 11.3, and 11.4).
cultivar. The basic independent category used for organisms in agriculture, forestry, and horticulture and defined and regulated in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (Art. 28 Notes 2, 4, and 5).
date of name. The date of valid publication of a name (Art. 33.1).
descriptio generico-specifica. A single description simultaneously validating the names of a genus and its single species (Art. 38.5).
description. [Not defined] – a published statement of a feature or features of an individual taxon; a description (or a diagnosis) is required for valid publication of a name of a new taxon (Art. 38.1(a) and 38.3); a validating description need not be diagnostic (Art. 38 Note 2).
descriptive name. A name of a taxon above the rank of family not formed from a generic name (Art. 16.1(b)).
designation. [Not defined] – the term used for what appears to be a name but that (1) has not been validly published and hence is not a name in the sense of the Code (Art. 6.3) or (2) is not to be regarded as a name (Art. 20.4 and 23.6) (see also type designation).
diagnosis. A statement of that which in the opinion of its author distinguishes a taxon from other taxa (Art. 38.2); a diagnosis (or a description) is required for valid publication of a name of a new taxon (Art. 38.1(a)).
duplicate. Part of a single gathering of a single species or infraspecific taxon (Art. 8.3 footnote) (see also gathering).
effective publication. Publication in accordance with Art. 29–31 (Art. 6.1).
element (as applied to typification). [Not defined] – applied to a specimen or illustration eligible as a type; also applied to a species name considered as the full equivalent of its type for the purposes of designation or citation of the type of a name of a genus or subdivision of a genus (Art. 10.1).
epithet. [Not defined] – used for the words in a combination other than the generic name and any rank-denoting term; hyphenated words are equivalent to a single word (Art. 6.7, 11.4, 21.1, 23.1, and 24.1; see also Art. H.10.2) (see also final epithet).
epitype. A specimen or illustration selected to serve as an interpretative type when the holotype, lectotype, or previously designated neotype, or all original material associated with a validly published name, cannot be identified for the purpose of the precise application of the name to a taxon (Art. 9.9).
ex-type (ex typo), ex-holotype (ex holotypo), ex-isotype (ex isotypo), etc. A living isolate obtained from the type of a name when this is a culture permanently preserved in a metabolically inactive state (Rec. 8B.2).
final epithet. The last epithet in sequence in any particular combination, whether at the rank of a subdivision of a genus, or of species, or of an infraspecific taxon (Art. 6.10 footnote).
forma specialis. See special form.
fossil-taxon. A taxon (diatom taxa excepted) the name of which is based on a fossil type (Art. 1.2 and 13.3).
gathering. A collection presumed to be of a single taxon made by the same collector(s) at the same time from a single locality (Art. 8.2 footnote; see also Art. 8 Note 1).
heterotypic synonym (taxonomic synonym). A name based on a type different from that of another name referring to the same taxon (Art. 14.4); indicated by the symbol “=” in the Appendices of the Code; termed a “subjective synonym” in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (Art. 14.4 footnote).
holotype. The one specimen or illustration indicated as the nomenclatural type by the author(s) of a name of a new species or infraspecific taxon or, when no type was indicated, used by the author(s) when preparing the account of the new taxon (Art. 9.1 and Note 1; see also Art. 9.2).
homonym. A name spelled exactly like another name published for a taxon at the same rank based on a different type (Art. 53.1). Note: names of subdivisions of the same genus or of infraspecific taxa within the same species that are based on different types and have the same final epithet are homonyms, even if they differ in rank (Art. 53.3), because the rank-denoting term is not part of the name (Art. 21 Note 1 and Art. 24 Note 2) (see also confusingly similar names).
homotypic synonym (nomenclatural synonym). A name based on the same type as that of another name (Art. 14.4); indicated by the symbol “≡” in the Appendices of the Code; termed an “objective synonym” in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (Art. 14.4 footnote).
hybrid formula. An expression consisting of the names of the parent taxa of a hybrid with a multiplication sign × placed between them (Art. H.2.1).
identifier. [Not defined] – (1) a unique number or string of characters issued by a recognized nomenclatural repository as required by Art. F.5.1 and F.5.4 for the purpose of registering nomenclatural novelties and certain nomenclatural acts. (2) A unique number or string of characters applied to a specimen, e.g. an accession number or a barcode.
illegitimate name. A validly published name that is not in accordance with specified rules (Art. 6.4), principally those on superfluity (Art. 52) and homonymy (Art. 53 and 54).
illustration. A work of art or a photograph depicting a feature or features of an organism, e.g. a drawing, a picture of a herbarium specimen, or a scanning electron micrograph (Art. 6.1 footnote).
improper Latin termination. A termination of a name or epithet not in accordance with the termination mandated by the Code (Art. 16.3, 18.4, 19.7, and 32.2).
indelible autograph. Handwritten material reproduced by some mechanical or graphic process (such as lithography, offset, or metallic etching) (Art. 30.6).
indirect reference. A clear (if cryptic) indication, by an author citation or in some other way, that a previously and effectively published description or diagnosis applies (Art. 38.14) or that a basionym or replaced synonym exists (Art. 41.3).
informal usage. Usage of the same or equivalent rank-denoting term at more than one non-consecutive position in the taxonomic sequence. Note: names involved in such usage are validly published but unranked (Art. 37.8).
infraspecific. [Not defined] – below the rank of species.
isoepitype. A duplicate specimen of the epitype (Art. 9.4 footnote).
isolectotype. A duplicate specimen of the lectotype (Art. 9.4 footnote).
isoneotype. A duplicate specimen of the neotype (Art. 9.4 footnote).
isonym. The same name based on the same type, published independently at different times perhaps by different authors. Note: only the earliest isonym has nomenclatural status (Art. 6 Note 2; but see Art. 14.14).
isosyntype. A duplicate specimen of a syntype (Art. 9.4 footnote).
isotype. A duplicate specimen of the holotype (Art. 9.5).
lectotype. One specimen or illustration designated from the original material as the nomenclatural type, in conformity with Art. 9.11 and 9.12, if the name was published without a holotype, or if the holotype is lost or destroyed, or if a type is found to belong to more than one taxon (Art. 9.3).
legitimate name. A validly published name that is in accordance with the rules, i.e. one that is not illegitimate (Art. 6.5) (see also illegitimate name).
misplaced term. A rank-denoting term used contrary to the relative order specified in the Code (Art. 18.2, 19.2, 37.6, and 37 Note 1).
monotypic genus. A genus for which a single binomial is validly published (Art. 38.6) (see also unispecific).
name. A name that has been validly published, whether it is legitimate or illegitimate (Art. 6.3) (see also designation).
name at new rank (status novus). A new name based on a legitimate, previously published name at a different rank, which is its basionym and which provides the final epithet, name, or stem of the name at new rank (Art. 6.10 and 7.3) (see also basionym, new combination).
name of a new taxon. A name validly published in its own right, i.e. one not based on a previously validly published name; it is not a new combination, a name at new rank (status novus), or a replacement name (nomen novum) (Art. 6.9).
neotype. A specimen or illustration selected to serve as nomenclatural type if no original material is extant or as long as it is missing (Art. 9.8 and 9.13; see also Art. 9.16 and 9.19).
new combination (combinatio nova). A new name for a taxon below the rank of genus based on a legitimate, previously published name, which is its basionym and which provides the final epithet of the new combination (Art. 6.10 and 7.3) (see also basionym, name at new rank).
new name. [Not defined] – a name as it appears in the place of its valid publication (see also nomenclatural novelty).
nomen alternativum (nom. alt.). One of eight family names, each regularly formed from a generic name in accordance with Art. 18.1, allowed as an alternative (Art. 18.6) to one of the family names of long usage treated as validly published under Art. 18.5. In addition, one subfamily name of long usage, Papilionoideae, may be used as an alternative to Faboideae (Art. 19.8) (see also alternative names).
nomen conservandum (nom. cons.). See conserved name.
nomen novum (nom. nov.). See replacement name.
nomen nudum (nom. nud.). A designation of a new taxon published without a description or diagnosis or reference to a description or diagnosis (Art. 38 Ex. 1, Rec. 50B).
nomen rejiciendum (nom. rej.). A name rejected in favour of a name conserved under Art. 14 or a name ruled as rejected under Art. 56 (App. IIA, III, IV, and V) (see also rejected name).
nomen sanctionatum (nom. sanct.). See sanctioned name.
nomen utique rejiciendum (suppressed name). A name ruled as rejected under Art. 56. Note: it and all names for which it is a basionym are not to be used (see App. V).
nomenclatural act. An act requiring effective publication that results in a nomenclatural novelty or affects aspects of names such as typification (Art. 7.10, 7.11, and F.5.4), priority (Art. 11.5 and 53.5), orthography (Art. 61.3), or gender (Art. 62.3) (Art. 34.1 footnote) (see also nomenclatural novelty).
nomenclatural novelty. Any or all of the categories: name of a new taxon, new combination, name at new rank, and replacement name (Art. 6 Note 4; see also Art. 6 Note 5) (see also new name).
nomenclatural synonym. See homotypic synonym.
nomenclatural type. The element to which the name of a taxon is permanently attached (Art. 7.2).
non-fossil taxon. A taxon the name of which is based on a non-fossil type (Art. 13.3).
nothogenus. A hybrid genus (Art. 3.2).
nothomorph. A term formerly denoting the only rank of infraspecific nothotaxa, equivalent to variety, that was permitted in editions of the Code prior to the Sydney Code of 1983. Names published as nothomorphs are now treated as having been published as names of varieties (Art. H.12.2 and footnote).
nothospecies. A hybrid species (Art. 3.2).
nothotaxon. A hybrid taxon (Art. 3.2 and H.3.1).
objective synonym. See homotypic synonym.
opera utique oppressa. See suppressed works.
organism. As used in this Code, the term is applied only to organisms traditionally studied by botanists, mycologists, and phycologists (Pre. 2 footnote, Pre. 8).
original material. The set of specimens and illustrations from which a lectotype may be chosen (see Art. 9.4, Notes 2 and 3, Art. F.3.9, and Note 2 for details), or the holotype (see Art. 9.1).
original spelling. The spelling used when a name of a new taxon or a replacement name was validly published (Art. 60.2).
orthographical variants. Various spelling, compounding, and inflectional forms of a name or its final epithet when only one nomenclatural type is involved (Art. 61.2).
page reference. Citation of the page or pages on which the basionym or replaced synonym was validly published or on which the protologue appears (Art. 41 Note 1).
paratype. Any specimen cited in the protologue that is neither the holotype nor an isotype, nor one of the syntypes if in the protologue two or more specimens were simultaneously designated as types (Art. 9.7).
position. [Not defined] – used to denote the placement of a taxon relative to other taxa in a classification, regardless of rank (Principle IV, Art. 6.6, and 11.1).
priority. A right to precedence established by the date of valid publication of a legitimate name (Art. 11) or of an earlier homonym (Art. 53 Note 2), or by the date of designation of a type (Art. 7.10, 7.11, and F.5.4).
pro synonymo (pro syn., as synonym). A citation indicating that a designation is not validly published because it was merely cited as a synonym (Art. 36.1(b) and Rec. 50A).
protected name. The name of an organism treated as a fungus listed (in App. IIA, III, and IV) with its type and treated as conserved against any competing listed or unlisted synonyms or homonyms (including sanctioned names), although conservation under Art. 14 overrides this protection (Art. F.2.1).
protologue. Everything associated with a name at its valid publication, e.g. description, diagnosis, illustrations, references, synonymy, geographical data, citation of specimens, discussion, and comments (Art. 6.13 footnote).
provisional name. A designation proposed in anticipation of the future acceptance of the taxon concerned, or of a particular circumscription, position, or rank of the taxon (Art. 36.1(a)).
pseudocompound. A name or epithet that combines elements derived from two or more Greek or Latin words and in which a noun or adjective in a non-final position appears as a word with a case ending, not as a modified stem (Rec. 60G.1(b)) (see also compound).
rank. [Not defined] – used for the relative position of a taxon in the taxonomic hierarchy (Art. 2.1). For suprageneric names published on or after 1 January 1887, the rank is indicated by the termination of the name (see Art. 37.2 and footnote). For names published on or after 1 January 1953, a clear indication of the rank is required for valid publication (Art. 37.1).
rejected name. A name ruled as not to be used, either by formal action under Art. 14, 56, or F.7 overriding other provisions of the Code (see nomen rejiciendum, nomen utique rejiciendum) or because it was nomenclaturally superfluous when published (Art. 52) or a later homonym (Art. 53 and 54). A name treated as rejected under Art. F.7 may become eligible for use by conservation under Art. 14.
replaced synonym. The legitimate or illegitimate, previously published name on which a replacement name (nomen novum) is based. The replaced synonym, when legitimate, does not provide the final epithet, name, or stem of the replacement name (Art. 6.11).
replacement name (nomen novum). A new name published as an explicit substitute (avowed substitute) for a legitimate or illegitimate, previously published name, which is its replaced synonym and which, when legitimate, does not provide the final epithet, name, or stem of the replacement name (Art. 6.11 and 7.4; for names not explicitly proposed as substitutes see Art. 6.12 and 6.13).
sanctioned name (nomen sanctionatum). The name of a fungus treated as if conserved against earlier homonyms and competing synonyms, through acceptance in a sanctioning work (Art. F.3.1).
special form (forma specialis). A taxon of parasites, especially fungi, characterized from a physiological standpoint but scarcely or not at all from a morphological standpoint, the nomenclature of which is not governed by this Code (Art. 4 Note 4).
specimen. A gathering, or part of a gathering, of a single species or infraspecific taxon, disregarding admixtures, mounted either as a single preparation or as more than one preparation with the parts clearly labelled as being part of the same specimen or bearing a single, original label in common (Art. 8.2 and 8.3). A specimen may not be a living organism or an active culture (Art. 8.4).
status. (1) Nomenclatural standing with regard to effective publication, valid publication, legitimacy, and correctness (Art. 6 and 12.1). (2) Rank of a taxon within the taxonomic hierarchy (see name at new rank). (3) Category of nomenclatural novelty (Art. 6.14).
status novus (stat. nov.). See name at new rank.
subdivision of a family. Any taxon at a rank between family and genus (Art. 4 Note 2).
subdivision of a genus. Any taxon at a rank between genus and species (Art. 4 Note 2).
subjective synonym. See heterotypic synonym.
superfluous name. A name that, when published, was applied to a taxon that, as circumscribed by its author, definitely included the type of a name that ought to have been adopted, or of which the epithet ought to have been adopted, under the rules (Art. 52.1). A superfluous name is illegitimate except as provided by Art. 52.4 or unless conserved (Art. 14), protected (Art. F.2), or sanctioned (Art. F.3).
superseded. [Not defined] – used for a designation of a type that is not followed but is replaced by a subsequent designation of a different type under the provisions of Art. 9.15, 9.18, 9.19, 10.2, or 10.5.
suppressed name. See nomen utique rejiciendum.
suppressed works (opera utique oppressa). Works, ruled as suppressed, in which new names at specified ranks are not validly published and no nomenclatural act within the work associated with any name at the specified ranks is effective (Art. 34.1 and App. I).
synonym. [Not defined] – one of two or more names that apply to the same taxon (see heterotypic synonym, homotypic synonym).
syntype. Any specimen cited in the protologue when there is no holotype, or any of two or more specimens simultaneously designated in the protologue as types (Art. 9.6).
tautonym. A binary designation in which the specific epithet exactly repeats the generic name (Art. 23.4).
taxon (taxa). A taxonomic group at any rank (Art. 1.1).
taxonomic synonym. See heterotypic synonym.
teleomorph. A meiotic sexual morph in pleomorphic fungi (Art. F.8 Notes 1 and 2).
type. See nomenclatural type.
type designation. [Not defined] – an explicit statement that establishes the type of a name; either (1) a holotype (Art. 9.1) or syntype(s) (Art. 9.6) designated in the protologue or (2) a lectotype, neotype, or epitype subsequently designated under the provisions of Art. 9–10 and in accordance with Art. 7.8–7.11 and F.5.4.
unispecific. [Not defined] – with a single species.
validate. [Not defined] – to make validly published; used in the context of a description or diagnosis, or illustration, effecting valid publication of a name (e.g. Art. 38 Ex. 21, 43.3, and 46 Ex. 7).
validly published. Effectively published and in accordance with the relevant provisions of Art. 32–45, F.4, F.5.1, F.5.2, and H.9 (Art. 6.2) (see designation, name).
voted Example. An Example, denoted by an asterisk in the Code, accepted by an International Botanical Congress in order to govern nomenclatural practice when the corresponding Article is open to divergent interpretation or does not adequately cover the matter. A voted Example is therefore comparable to a rule, as contrasted with other Examples provided by the Editorial Committee solely for illustrative purposes (Art. 7 *Ex. 16 footnote).