Important: the following provisions of Chapter F in the Shenzhen Code

are superseded by the San Juan Chapter F, which is published by May & al.

in IMA Fungus 10: 21. 2019; DOI:



NAMES of organisms treated as fungi

This Chapter brings together the provisions of this Code that deal solely with names of organisms treated as fungi.

Content in this Chapter may be modified by action of the Nomenclature Session of an International Mycological Congress (IMC) (see Div. III Prov. 8). Results of the IMC Nomenclature Sessions for 2018 and 2022 will not be available until after print publication of this Code, and therefore mycologists should always consult the online version of this Code in case of subsequent changes (

Mycologists should note that the content of this Code outside of Chapter F pertains to all organisms covered by this Code, including fungi, unless expressly limited. This content includes rules about effective publication, valid publication, typification, legitimacy, and priority of names; citation and orthography; and names of hybrids.

Some provisions in the Preamble, Principles, Articles, and Recommendations elsewhere in this Code, such as those listed below, while not restricted to fungi, are of particular relevance to mycologists. The full wording of these and all other relevant provisions of this Code should be consulted in all cases.

Pre. 8. The provisions of this Code apply to all organisms traditionally treated as fungi, whether fossil or non-fossil, including chytrids, oomycetes, and slime moulds (but excluding Microsporidia).

Principle I. This Code applies to names of taxonomic groups treated as fungi, whether or not these groups were originally so treated.

Art. 4 Note 4. In classifying parasites, especially fungi, authors may distinguish within the species special forms (formae speciales) characterized by their adaptation to different hosts, but the nomenclature of special forms is not governed by the provisions of this Code.

Art. 8.4 (see also Art. 8 Ex. 12, Rec. 8B, Art. 40 Note 3, and Art. 40.8). Cultures of fungi are acceptable as types if preserved in a metabolically inactive state, and this must be stated in the protologue.

Art. 14.15 and Art. 14 Note 4(c)(2). Before 1 January 1954, decisions on conservation of names made by the Special Committee for Fungi, became effective on 20 July 1950 at the VII International Botanical Congress in Stockholm.

Art. 16.3. Automatically typified suprafamilial names of fungi end as follows: division or phylum in mycota, subdivision or subphylum in mycotina, class in mycetes, and subclass in mycetidae. Automatically typified names not in accordance with these terminations are to be corrected.

Rec. 38E.1. The hosts should be indicated in descriptions or diagnoses of new taxa of parasitic organisms, especially fungi.

Art. 40.5. The type of a name of a new species or infraspecific taxon of non-fossil microfungi may be an effectively published illustration if there are technical difficulties of specimen preservation or if it is impossible to preserve a specimen that would show the features attributed to the taxon by the author of the name (but see Art. 40 Ex. 6, which treats representations of DNA sequences as falling outside of the definition of illustrations in Art. 6.1 footnote).

Art. 41.8(b) (see also Art. 41 Ex. 26). Failure to cite the place of valid publication of a basionym or replaced synonym, when explained by the backward shift of the starting date for some fungi, is a correctable error.

Art. 45.1 (see also Art. 45 Ex. 6 and 7 and Note 1). If a taxon originally assigned to a group not covered by this Code is treated as belonging to the algae or fungi, any of its names need satisfy only the requirements of the relevant other Code that the author was using for status equivalent to valid publication under this Code. Note especially that names of Microsporidia are not covered by this Code even when Microsporidia are considered as fungi.