Important: the following provisions of Chapter F in the Shenzhen Code

are superseded by the San Juan Chapter F, which is published by May & al.

in IMA Fungus 10: 21. 2019; DOI:



NAMES of organisms treated as fungi



Article F.3
sanctioned names

F.3.1. Names in Uredinales, Ustilaginales, and Gasteromycetes (s. l.) adopted by Persoon (Synopsis methodica fungorum, 1801) and names of other fungi (excluding slime moulds) adopted by Fries (Systema mycologicum, vol. 1–3. 1821–1832, with additional Index, 1832; and Elenchus fungorum, vol. 1–2. 1828), are sanctioned.

F.3.2. Names sanctioned are treated as if conserved against earlier homonyms and competing synonyms. Such names, once sanctioned, remain sanctioned even if elsewhere in the sanctioning works the sanctioning author does not recognize them. The spelling used when the name was sanctioned is treated as conserved, except for changes mandated by Art. 60 and F.9.

Ex. 1. Agaricus ericetorum Pers. (Observ. Mycol. 1: 50. 1796) was accepted by Fries in Systema mycologicum (1: 165. 1821), but later (Elench. Fung. 1: 22. 1828) regarded by him as a synonym of A. umbelliferus L. (Sp. Pl.: 1175. 1753) and not included in his Index (p. 18. 1832) as an accepted name. Nevertheless A. ericetorum Pers.:Fr. is a sanctioned name.

Ex. 2. The spelling used when the name Merulius lacrimans (Wulfen:Fr.) Schumach.:Fr. was sanctioned (Fries, Syst. Mycol. 1: 328. 1821) is to be maintained, even though the epithet was spelled ‘lacrymans’ by Schumacher (Enum. Pl. 2: 371. 1803) and the basionym was originally published as Boletus ‘lacrymans’ Wulfen (in Jacquin, Misc. Austriac. 2: 111. 1781).

F.3.3. A sanctioned name is illegitimate if it is a later homonym of another sanctioned name (see also Art. 53).

F.3.4. An earlier homonym of a sanctioned name is not made illegitimate by that sanctioning but is unavailable for use; if not otherwise illegitimate, it may serve as a basionym of another name or combination based on the same type (see also Art. 55.3).

Ex. 3. Patellaria Hoffm. (Descr. Pl. Cl. Crypt. 1: 33, 54, 55. 1789) is an earlier homonym of the sanctioned generic name Patellaria Fr. (Syst. Mycol. 2: 158. 1822):Fr. Hoffmann’s name is legitimate but unavailable for use. Lecanidion Endl. (Fl. Poson.: 46. 1830), based on the same type as Patellaria Fr.:Fr., is illegitimate under Art. 52.1.

Ex. 4. Agaricus cervinus Schaeff. (Fung. Bavar. Palat. Nasc. 4: 6. 1774) is an earlier homonym of the sanctioned A. cervinus Hoffm. (Nomencl. Fung. 1: t. 2, fig. 2. 1789):Fr.; Schaeffer’s name is unavailable for use, but it is legitimate and may serve as basionym for combinations in other genera. In Pluteus Fr. the combination is cited as P. cervinus (Schaeff.) P. Kumm. and has priority over the heterotypic (taxonomic) synonym P. atricapillus (Batsch) Fayod, based on A. atricapillus Batsch (Elench. Fung.: 77. 1786).

F.3.5. When, for a taxon at a rank from family to genus, inclusive, two or more sanctioned names compete, Art. 11.3 governs the choice of the correct name (see also Art. F.3.7).

F.3.6. When, for a taxon at a rank lower than genus, two or more sanctioned names and/or two or more names with the same final epithet and type as a sanctioned name compete, Art. 11.4 governs the choice of the correct name.

Note 1. The date of sanctioning does not affect the date of valid publication, and therefore priority (Art. 11), of a sanctioned name. In particular, when two or more homonyms are sanctioned only the earliest of them may be used because the later one(s) are illegitimate under Art. F.3.3.

Ex. 5. Fries (Syst. Mycol. 1: 41. 1821) accepted Agaricus flavovirens Pers. (in Hoffmann, Abbild. Schwämme 3: t. 24. 1793):Fr. and treated A. equestris L. (Sp. Pl.: 1173. 1753) as a synonym. He later (Elench. Fung. 1: 6. 1828) accepted A. equestris, stating “Nomen prius et aptius certe restituendum [The prior and more apt name is certainly to be restored]”. Both names are sanctioned, but, when they are treated as synonyms, A. equestris L.:Fr. is to be used because it has priority.

F.3.7. A name that neither is sanctioned nor has the same type and final epithet as a sanctioned name at the same rank may not be used for a taxon that includes the type of a sanctioned name at that rank with a final epithet that is available for the required combination (see Art. 11.4(c)).

F.3.8. Conservation (Art. 14), protection (Art. F.2), and explicit rejection (Art. 56 and F.7) override sanctioning.

F.3.9. The type of a name of a species or infraspecific taxon adopted in one of the works specified in Art. F.3.1, and thereby sanctioned, may be selected from among the elements associated with the name in the protologue and/or the sanctioning treatment.

Note 2. For names falling under Art. F.3.9, elements from the context of the protologue are original material and those from the context of the sanctioning work are considered as equivalent to original material.

F.3.10. When a sanctioning author accepted an earlier name but did not include, even implicitly, any element associated with its protologue, or when the protologue did not include the subsequently designated type of the sanctioned name, the sanctioning author is considered to have created a later homonym, treated as if conserved (see also Art. 48).

Note 3. For typification of sanctioned generic names, see Art. 10.2. Note that automatic typification under Art. 7.5 does not apply to sanctioned names. For legitimacy of sanctioned names (or names based on them), see also Art. 6.4, 52.1, 53.1, and 55.3.

Recommendation F.3A

F.3A.1. After a sanctioned name (Art. F.3.1), either “: Fr.” or “: Pers.” (to indicate the sanctioning author Fries or Persoon) or the abbreviation “nom. sanct.” (nomen sanctionatum) should be added in a formal citation, together with the citation of the place of sanctioning if considered desirable. In a formal citation of a new combination based either on a sanctioned name or on the basionym of a sanctioned name, “: Fr.” or “: Pers.” should be added within the parentheses after the author(s) of the basionym (Art. 49.1).1

[footnote]1 In this Code and its Appendices, sanctioning is indicated by “: Fr.” or “: Pers.”

Ex. 1. Boletus piperatus Bull. (Herb. France: t. 451, fig. 2. 1790) was adopted in Fries (Syst. Mycol. 1: 388. 1821) and was thereby sanctioned. It can be cited as either B. piperatus Bull.:Fr. or B. piperatus Bull., nom. sanct.

Ex. 2. Agaricus compactus [unranked] sarcocephalus (Fr.) Fr. was sanctioned when adopted by Fries (Syst. Mycol. 1: 290. 1821). That status can be indicated by citing it as either A. compactus [unranked] sarcocephalus (Fr.:Fr.) Fr.:Fr. or A. compactus [unranked] sarcocephalus (Fr.) Fr., nom. sanct. The designation “: Fr.” is not to be added when citing its basionym A. sarcocephalus Fr. (Observ. Mycol. 1: 51. 1815), but it can be added when citing subsequent combinations such as Psathyrella sarcocephala (Fr.:Fr.) Singer (in Lilloa 22: 468. 1949).