ORTHOGRAPHY AND GENDER OF NAMES
60.1. The original spelling of a name or epithet is to be retained, except for the correction of typographical or orthographical errors and the standardizations imposed by Art. 60.4 (letters and ligatures foreign to classical Latin), 60.5 and 60.6 (interchange between u/v, i/j, or eu/ev), 60.7 (diacritical signs and ligatures), 60.8 (terminations; see also Art. 32.2), 60.9 (intentional latinizations), 60.10 (compounding forms), 60.11 and 60.12 (hyphens), 60.13 (apostrophes and full stops), 60.14 (abbreviations), and F.9.1 (epithets of fungal names) (see also Art. 14.8, 14.11, and F.3.2).
Ex. 1. Retention of original spelling: The generic names Mesembryanthemum L. (Sp. Pl.: 480. 1753) and Amaranthus L. (Sp. Pl.: 989. 1753) were deliberately so spelled by Linnaeus and the spelling is not to be altered to ‘Mesembrianthemum’ and ‘Amarantus’, respectively, although these latter forms are linguistically correct (see Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 113, 287. 1928). – Phoradendron Nutt. (in J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, ser. 2, 1: 185. 1848) is not to be altered to ‘Phoradendrum’. – Triaspis mozambica A. Juss. (in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 2, 13: 268. 1840) is not to be altered to ‘T. mossambica’, as in Engler (Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C: 232. 1895). – Alyxia ceylanica Wight (Icon. Pl. Ind. Orient. 4: t. 1293. 1848) is not to be altered to ‘A. zeylanica’, as in Trimen (Handb. Fl. Ceylon 3: 127. 1895). – Fagus sylvatica L. (Sp. Pl.: 998. 1753) is not to be altered to ‘F. silvatica’. Although the classical spelling is silvatica, the mediaeval spelling sylvatica is not an orthographical error (see also Rec. 60E). – Scirpus cespitosus L. (Sp. Pl.: 48. 1753) is not to be altered to ‘S. caespitosus’.
*Ex. 2. The epithet of Agaricus rhacodes Vittad. (Descr. Fung. Mang.: 158. 1833) is to be so spelled, even though it was originally spelled ‘rachodes’ (see Wilson in Taxon 66: 189. 2017).
*Ex. 3. Typographical errors: Globba ‘brachycarpa’ Baker (in Hooker, Fl. Brit. India 6: 205. 1890) and Hetaeria ‘alba’ Ridl. (J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 32: 404. 1896) are typographical errors for Globba trachycarpa Baker and Hetaeria alta Ridl., respectively (see Sprague in J. Bot. 59: 349. 1921).
Ex. 4. ‘Torilis’ taihasenzanensis Masam. (in J. Soc. Trop. Agric. 6: 570. 1934) was a typographical error for Trollius taihasenzanensis, as noted on the errata slip inserted between pages 4 and 5 of the same volume.
Ex. 5. The misspelled Indigofera ‘longipednnculata’ Y. Y. Fang & C. Z. Zheng (in Acta Phytotax. Sin. 21: 331. 1983) is presumably a typographical error and is to be corrected to I. longipedunculata.
*Ex. 6. Orthographical error: Gluta ‘benghas’ L. (Mant. Pl.: 293. 1771), which is an orthographical error for G. renghas, is cited as G. renghas L. (see Engler in Candolle & Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 4: 225. 1883); the vernacular name used as a specific epithet by Linnaeus is “renghas”, not “benghas”.
Ex. 7. The original spelling of the generic name ‘Nilsonia’ Brongn. (in Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 4: 210. 1825) is an orthographical error correctable under Art. 60.1 to Nilssonia, the conservation of which is not therefore required. Brongniart named the genus after Sven Nilsson, whose name he consistently misspelled as “Nilson” in his 1825 publication.
Ex. 8. Bougainvillea Comm. ex Juss. (‘Buginvillaea’), orth. cons. (see App. III).
60.2. The words “original spelling” mean the spelling used when a name of a new taxon or a replacement name was validly published. They do not refer to the use of an initial capital or lower-case letter, which is a matter of typography (see Art. 20.1, 21.2, and Rec. 60F).
60.3. The liberty of correcting a name is to be used with reserve, especially if the change affects the first syllable and, above all, the first letter of the name (but see *Ex. 6).
*Ex. 10. The spelling of the generic name Lespedeza Michx. (Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 70. 1803) is not to be altered, although it commemorates Vicente Manuel de Céspedes (see Rhodora 36: 130–132, 390–392. 1934). – Cereus jamacaru DC. (Prodr. 3: 467. 1828) may not be altered to C. ‘mandacaru’, even if jamacaru is believed to be a corruption of the vernacular name “mandacaru”.
60.4. The letters w and y, foreign to classical Latin, and k, rare in that language, are permissible in scientific names (see Art. 32.1(b)). Other letters and ligatures foreign to classical Latin that may appear in scientific names, such as the German ß (ſs, or double s), are to be transcribed.
60.5. When a name has been published in a work where the letters u, v or i, j are used interchangeably or in any other way incompatible with modern typographical practices (e.g. one letter of a pair not being used in capitals, or not at all), those letters are to be transcribed in conformity with modern nomenclatural usage.
Ex. 11. Curculigo Gaertn. (Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1: 63. 1788), not ‘Cvrcvligo’; Taraxacum Zinn (Cat. Pl. Hort. Gott.: 425. 1757), not ‘Taraxacvm’; Uffenbachia Fabr. (Enum., ed. 2: 21. 1763), not ‘Vffenbachia’.
Ex. 12. ‘Geastrvm hygrometricvm’ and ‘Vredo pvstvlata’ of Persoon (in Syn. Meth. Fung.: 135, 219 1801) are spelled, respectively, Geastrum hygrometricum Pers. : Pers. and Uredo pustulata Pers. : Pers.
60.6. When the original publication of a name adopted a use of the letters u, v or i, j in any way incompatible with modern nomenclatural practices, those letters are to be transcribed in conformity with modern nomenclatural usage. When names or epithets are derived from Greek words that include the diphthong ey (ευ), its transcription as ev is treated as an error correctable to eu. When names or epithets of Latin but not Greek origin include the letter i used as a semi-vowel (followed by another vowel), it is treated as an error correctable to j.
Ex. 13. The generic name ‘Mezonevron’ Desf. is correctable to Mezoneuron Desf., and the basionym of Neuropteris (Brongn.) Sternb. (nom. & orth. cons.), Filicites sect. ‘Nevropteris’ Brongn., is correctable to Filicites sect. Neuropteris. Similarly, ‘Evonymus’ L. is correctable to Euonymus L. (nom. & orth. cons.).
Ex. 14. Jatropha L., Jondraba Medik., and Clypeola jonthlaspi L., because they are of Greek origin, are not to be altered to ‘Iatropha’, ‘Iondraba’, and Clypeola ‘ionthlaspi’; nor are Ionopsidium Rchb. and Ionthlaspi Adans. to be altered to ‘Jonopsidium’ and ‘Jonthlaspi’, respectively.
Ex. 15. Brachypodium ‘iaponicum’ Miq. is correctable to Brachypodium japonicum because the epithet is Latin and, in Latin, an initial i followed by a vowel is a semi-vowel. Meiandra ‘maior’ Markgr. is correctable to Meiandra major because the epithet is Latin and, in Latin, an i between two vowels is a semi-vowel, but the generic name is of Greek origin, and so the spelling “Meiandra” is correct.
60.7. Diacritical signs are not used in scientific names. When names (either new or old) are drawn from words in which such signs appear, the signs are to be suppressed with the necessary transcription of the letters so modified; for example ä, ö, ü become, respectively, ae, oe, ue (not æ or œ, see below); é, è, ê become e; ñ becomes n; ø becomes oe (not œ); å becomes ao. The diaeresis, indicating that a vowel is to be pronounced separately from the preceding vowel (as in Cephaëlis, Isoëtes), is a phonetic device that is not considered to alter the spelling; as such, its use is optional. The ligatures æ and œ, indicating that the letters are pronounced together, are to be replaced by the separate letters ae and oe.
Ex. 16. Transcription (e.g. umlaut): ‘Lühea’, dedicated to Carl Emil von der Lühe, is spelled Luehea Willd. (in Neue Schriften Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin 3: 410. 1801); suppression (e.g. tilde): Vochysia ‘kosñipatae’, named after the valley of Kosñipata, is spelled V. kosnipatae Huamantupa (in Arnaldoa 12: 82. 2005).
60.8. The termination of specific or infraspecific epithets derived from personal names that are not already in Greek or Latin and do not possess a well-established latinized form (see Rec. 60C.1) is as follows:
(a) If the personal name ends with a vowel or ‑er, substantival epithets are formed by adding the genitive inflection appropriate to the gender and number of the person(s) honoured (e.g. scopoli‑i for Scopoli (m), fedtschenko‑i for Fedtschenko (m), fedtschenko‑ae for Fedtschenko (f), glaziou‑i for Glaziou (m), lace‑ae for Lace (f), gray‑i for Gray (m), hooker‑orum for the Hookers (m)), except when the name ends with ‑a, in which case adding ‑e (singular) or ‑rum (plural) is appropriate (e.g. triana‑e for Triana (m), pojarkova‑e for Pojarkova (f), orlovskaja‑e for Orlovskaja (f)).
(b) If the personal name ends with a consonant (but not in ‑er), substantival epithets are formed by adding ‑i- (stem augmentation) plus the genitive inflection appropriate to the gender and number of the person(s) honoured (e.g. lecard‑ii for Lecard (m), wilson‑iae for Wilson (f), verlot‑iorum for the Verlot brothers, braun‑iarum for the Braun sisters, mason‑iorum for Mason, father and daughter).
(c) If the personal name ends with a vowel, adjectival epithets are formed by adding ‑an- plus the nominative singular inflection appropriate to the gender of the generic name (e.g. Cyperus heyne‑anus for Heyne, Vanda lindley‑ana for Lindley, Aspidium bertero‑anum for Bertero), except when the personal name ends with ‑a in which case ‑n- plus the appropriate inflection is added (e.g. balansa‑nus (m), balansa‑na (f), and balansa‑num (n) for Balansa).
(d) If the personal name ends with a consonant, adjectival epithets are formed by adding ‑i- (stem augmentation) plus ‑an- (stem of adjectival suffix) plus the nominative singular inflection appropriate to the gender of the generic name (e.g. Rosa webb‑iana for Webb, Desmodium griffith‑ianum for Griffith, Verbena hassler‑iana for Hassler).
Terminations contrary to the above standards are treated as errors to be corrected to ‑[i]i, ‑[i]ae, ‑[i]ana, ‑[i]anus, ‑[i]anum, ‑[i]arum, or ‑[i]orum, as appropriate (see also Art. 32.2). However, epithets formed in accordance with Rec. 60C.1 are not correctable (see also Art. 60.9).
Note 2. The hyphens in Art. 60.8 are used only to set off the termination.
Ex. 17. In Rhododendron ‘potanini’ Batalin (in Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 11: 489. 1892), commemorating G. N. Potanin, the epithet is to be spelled potaninii under Art. 60.8(b). However, in Phoenix theophrasti Greuter (in Bauhinia 3: 243. 1967), commemorating Theophrastus, it is not spelled ‘theophrastii’ because Rec. 60C.1 applies.
Ex. 18. Rosa ‘pissarti’ Carrière (in Rev. Hort. (Paris) 1880: 314. 1880) is a typographical error for R. ‘pissardi’ (see Rev. Hort. (Paris) 1881: 190. 1881), which is to be spelled R. pissardii under Art. 60.8(b).
Ex. 19. In Caulokaempferia ‘dinabandhuensis’ Biseshwori & Bipin (in J. Jap. Bot. 92: 84. 2017), commemorating Prof. Dinabandhu Sahoo, the adjectival epithet was wrongly given the geographical termination ‑ensis (see Rec. 60D.1), but is to be spelled C. dinabandhuana under Art. 60.8(c).
Ex. 20. In Uladendron codesuri Marc.-Berti (in Pittieria 3: 10. 1971) the epithet derives from an acronym (CODESUR, Comisión para el Desarrollo del Sur de Venezuela), not a personal name, and is not to be changed to ‘codesurii’ (as in Brenan, Index Kew., Suppl. 16: 296. 1981).
Ex. 21. In Asparagus tamaboki Yatabe (in Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 7: 61. 1893) and Agropyron kamoji Ohwi (in Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 11: 179. 1942) the epithets correspond, respectively, to a Japanese vernacular designation, “tamaboki”, or to part of such a designation, “kamojigusa”, and are not therefore spelled ‘tamabokii’ and ‘kamojii’.
Note 4. If the gender and/or number of a substantival epithet derived from a personal name is inappropriate for the gender and/or number of the person(s) whom the name commemorates, the termination is to be corrected in conformity with Art. 60.8.
Ex. 22. Rosa ×‘toddii’ Wolley-Dod (in J. Bot. 69, Suppl.: 106. 1931) was named for “Miss E. S. Todd”; the epithet is to be spelled toddiae.
Ex. 23. Astragalus ‘matthewsii’ Podlech & Kirchhoff (in Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 11: 432. 1974) commemorates Victoria A. Matthews; the epithet is to be spelled matthewsiae and the name is not to be treated as a later homonym of A. matthewsii S. Watson (in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 18: 192. 1883) commemorating Washington Matthews (see App. VII).
Ex. 24. Codium ‘geppii’ (Schmidt in Biblioth. Bot. 91: 50. 1923), which commemorates A. Gepp and E. S. Gepp, is to be corrected to C. geppiorum O. C. Schmidt.
Ex. 25. Acacia ‘Bancrofti’ Maiden (in Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 30: 26. 1918) “commemorates the Bancrofts, father and son, the former the late Dr. Joseph Bancroft, and the latter Dr. Thomas Lane Bancroft”; the epithet is to be spelled bancroftiorum.
Ex. 26. Chamaecrista leonardiae Britton (N. Amer. Fl. 23: 281. 1930, ‘Leonardae’), Scolosanthus leonardii Alain (in Brittonia 20: 160. 1968), and Frankenia leonardiorum Alain (l.c.: 155. 1968, ‘leonardorum’) were all based on type material collected by Emery C. Leonard and Genevieve M. Leonard. Because there is no explicit contradicting statement, these names are to be accepted as dedicated to either or both, as indicated by the termination of the epithet.
60.9. When changes in spelling by authors who adopt personal, geographical, or vernacular names in nomenclature are intentional latinizations, they are to be preserved, except, in epithets formed from personal names, when they concern (a) only a termination to which Art. 60.8 applies, or (b) personal names in which the changes involve only (1) omission of the terminal vowel or terminal consonant or (2) conversion of the terminal vowel to a different vowel, for which the omitted or converted letter is to be restored.
Ex. 27. Clutia L. (Sp. Pl.: 1042. 1753), Gleditsia J. Clayton (in Linnaeus, l.c.: 1056. 1753), and Valantia L. (l.c.: 1051. 1753), commemorating Cluyt, Gleditsch, and Vaillant, respectively, are not to be altered to ‘Cluytia’, ‘Gleditschia’, and ‘Vaillantia’; these personal names were deliberately latinized as Clutius, Gleditsius, and Valantius.
Ex. 28. Abies alcoquiana Veitch ex Lindl. (in Gard. Chron. 1861: 23. 1861), commemorating “Rutherford Alcock Esq.”, implies an intentional latinization of his family name to Alcoquius. In transferring the epithet to Picea, Carrière (Traité Gén. Conif., ed. 2: 343. 1867) deliberately changed the spelling to ‘alcockiana’. The resulting combination is nevertheless correctly cited as P. alcoquiana (Veitch ex Lindl.) Carrière (see Art. 61.4).
Ex. 29. Abutilon glaziovii K. Schum. (in Martius, Fl. Bras. 12(3): 408. 1891), Desmodium bigelovii A. Gray (in Smithsonian Contr. Knowl. 5(6): 47. 1843), and Rhododendron bureavii Franch. (in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 34: 281. 1887), commemorating A. F. M. Glaziou, J. Bigelow, and L. E. Bureau, respectively, are not to be changed to A. ‘glazioui’, D. ‘bigelowii’, or R. ‘bureaui’. In these three cases, the implicit latinizations Glaziovius, Bigelovius, and Bureavius result from conversion of the terminal vowel or consonant to a consonant and do not affect merely the termination of the names.
Ex. 30. Arnica chamissonis Less. (in Linnaea 6: 238. 1831) and Tragus berteronianus Schult. (Mant. 2: 205. 1824), commemorating L. K. A. von Chamisso and C. L. G. Bertero, are not to be changed to A. ‘chamissoi’ or T. ‘berteroanus’. The derivation of these epithets from the third declension genitive (Rec. 60C Ex. 1(b)), a practice normally discouraged (see Rec. 60C.1), involves the addition of letters to the personal name and does not affect merely the termination.
Ex. 31. Acacia ‘brandegeana’, Blandfordia ‘backhousii’, Cephalotaxus ‘fortuni’, Chenopodium ‘loureirei’, Convolvulus ‘loureiri’, Glochidion ‘melvilliorum’, Hypericum ‘buckleii’, Solanum ‘rantonnei’, and Zygophyllum ‘billardierii’ were published to commemorate T. S. Brandegee, J. Backhouse, R. Fortune, J. de Loureiro, R. Melville and E. F. Melville, S. B. Buckley, V. Rantonnet, and J. J. H. de Labillardière (de la Billardière). The implicit latinizations are Brandegeus, Backhousius, Fortunus, Loureireus or Loureirus, Melvillius, Buckleius, Rantonneus, and Billardierius, but these are not acceptable under Art. 60.9. The names are correctly cited as A. brandegeeana I. M. Johnst. (in Contr. Gray Herb. 75: 27. 1925), B. backhousei Gunn & Lindl. (in Edwards’s Bot. Reg. 31: t. 18. 1845), Cephalotaxus fortunei Hook. (in Bot. Mag.: ad t. 4499. 1850), Chenopodium loureiroi Steud. (Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2. 1: 348. 1840), Convolvulus loureiroi G. Don (Gen Hist. 10: 290. 1836), G. melvilleorum Airy Shaw (in Kew Bull. 25: 487. 1971), H. buckleyi M. A. Curtis (in Amer. J. Sci. Arts 44: 80. 1843), S. rantonnetii Carrière (in Rev. Hort. 32: 135. 1859), and Z. billardierei DC. (Prodr. 1: 705. 1824).
Ex. 32. Mycena seynii Quél. (in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 23: 351. 1877), commemorating Jules de Seynes, is not to be altered to M. ‘seynesii’. The implicit latinization of that name to Seynius results from omission of more than the terminal letter.
Note 5. The provisions of Art. 60.8, 60.9, and Rec. 60C deal with the latinization of names through their modification. Latinization is not the same as translation of a name (e.g. Tabernaemontanus, Latin for Bergzabern; Nobilis, Latin for Noble). Epithets derived from such Latin translations fall under Rec. 60C.1 and are not subject to standardization under Art. 60.8.
Ex. 33. In Wollemia nobilis W. G. Jones & al. (in Telopea 6: 174. 1995), nobilis, an adjective with genitive nobilis, is the translation into Latin of the family name of the discoverer David Noble. Cladonia abbatiana S. Stenroos (in Ann. Bot. Fenn. 28: 107. 1991) honours the French lichenologist H. des Abbayes, where Abbayes can be translated to Abbatiae (abbeys). Neither epithet may be altered.
60.10. Adjectival epithets that combine elements derived from two or more Greek or Latin words are to be compounded as follows:
A noun or adjective in a non-final position appears as a compounding form generally obtained by
(a) removing the case ending of the genitive singular (Latin ‑ae, ‑i, ‑us, ‑is; transcribed Greek ‑ou, ‑os, ‑es, ‑as, ‑ous and its equivalent ‑eos) and
(b) before a consonant, adding a connecting vowel (‑i- for Latin elements, ‑o- for Greek elements).
Adjectival epithets not formed in accordance with this provision are to be corrected to conform with it, unless Rec. 60G.1(a) or (b) applies. In particular, the use of the genitive singular case ending of Latin first-declension nouns instead of a connecting vowel is treated as an error to be corrected unless it serves to make a semantic distinction.
Ex. 34. The epithet meaning “having leaves like those of Quercus” is quercifolia (Querc-, connecting vowel ‑i-, and ending ‑folia).
Ex. 35. The epithet ‘aquilegifolia’, derived from the name Aquilegia must be changed to aquilegiifolia (Aquilegi-, connecting vowel ‑i-, and ending ‑folia).
Ex. 36. The epithet of Pereskia ‘opuntiaeflora’ DC. (in Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. 17: 76. 1828) is to be spelled opuntiiflora, and that of Myrosma ‘cannaefolia’ L. f. (Suppl. Pl. 80. 1782), cannifolia.
Ex. 37. The epithet of Cacalia ‘napeaefolia’ DC. (Prodr. 6: 328. 1838) and Senecio ‘napeaefolius’ (DC.) Sch. Bip. (in Flora 28: 498. 1845) is to be spelled napaeifolia (‑us); it refers to the resemblance of the leaves to those found in Napaea L. (not ‘Napea’), and the connecting vowel ‑i- should have been used instead of the genitive singular inflection ‑ae-.
Ex. 38. In Andromeda polifolia L. (Sp. Pl.: 393. 1753), the epithet is taken from a pre-Linnaean generic designation (“Polifolia” of Buxbaum) and is a noun used in apposition, not an adjective; it is not to be altered to ‘poliifolia’ (Polium-leaved).
Ex. 39. Tetragonia tetragonoides (Pall.) Kuntze (Revis. Gen. Pl. 1: 264. 1891) was based on Demidovia tetragonoides Pall. (Enum. Hort. Demidof: 150. 1781), the specific epithet of which was derived from the generic name Tetragonia and the suffix ‑oides. Because this is a compound epithet derived from a noun and a suffix, not two Greek or Latin words, it is not to be altered to ‘tetragonioides’.
60.11. The use of a hyphen in a compound epithet is treated as an error to be corrected by deletion of the hyphen. A hyphen is permitted only when the epithet is formed of words that usually stand independently, or when the letters before and after the hyphen are the same (see also Art. 23.1 and 23.3).
Ex. 40. Hyphen to be deleted: Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Sp. Pl.: 1024. 1753, ‘pseudo-platanus’); Croton ciliatoglandulifer Ortega (Nov. Pl. Descr. Dec.: 51. 1797, ‘ciliato-glandulifer’); Eugenia costaricensis O. Berg (in Linnaea 27: 213. 1856, ‘costa-ricensis’); Eunotia rolandschmidtii Metzeltin & Lange-Bert. (Iconogr. Diatomol. 18: 117. 2007, ‘roland-schmidtii’), in which the given name and surname do not stand independently because the former is not separately latinized; Ficus neoebudarum Summerh. (in J. Arnold Arbor. 13: 97. 1932, ‘neo-ebudarum’); Lycoperdon atropurpureum Vittad. (Monogr. Lycoperd.: 42. 1842, ‘atro-purpureum’); Mesospora vanbosseae Børgesen (in Skottsberg, Nat. Hist. Juan Fernandez 2: 258. 1924, ‘van-bosseae’); Peperomia lasierrana Trel. & Yunck. (Piperac. N. South Amer.: 530. 1950, ‘la-sierrana’); Scirpus sect. Pseudoeriophorum Jurtzev (in Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol. 70(1): 132. 1965, ‘Pseudo-eriophorum’).
Ex. 41. Hyphen to be maintained: Athyrium austro-occidentale Ching (in Acta Bot. Boreal.-Occid. Sin. 6: 152. 1986); Enteromorpha roberti-lamii H. Parriaud (in Botaniste 44: 247. 1961), in which the given name and surname stand independently because they are separately latinized; Piper pseudo-oblongum McKown (in Bot. Gaz. 85: 57. 1928); Ribes non-scriptum (Berger) Standl. (in Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 8: 140. 1930); Solanum fructu-tecto Cav. (Icon. 4: 5. 1797); Vitis novae-angliae Fernald (in Rhodora 19: 146. 1917).
Ex. 42. Hyphen to be inserted: Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. (Syst. Veg. 2: 287. 1825, ‘uva ursi’); Aster novae-angliae L. (Sp. Pl.: 875. 1753, ‘novae angliae’); Coix lacryma-jobi L. (l.c.: 972. 1753, ‘lacryma jobi’); Marattia rolandi-principis Rosenst. (in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 10: 162. 1911, ‘rolandi principis’); Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. (Sp. Pl.: 12. 1753, ‘anagallis ’), (see Art. 23.3); Veronica argute-serrata Regel & Schmalh. (in Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 5: 626. 1878, ‘argute serrata’).
Ex. 43. Hyphen not to be inserted: Synsepalum letestui Aubrév. & Pellegr. (in Notul. Syst. (Paris) 16: 263. 1961, ‘Le Testui’), not ‘le-testui’.
Note 6. Art. 60.11 refers only to epithets (in combinations), not to names of genera (for names of fossil-genera see Art. 60.12) or taxa at higher ranks; a non-fossil generic name published with a hyphen can be changed only by conservation (Art. 14.11; see also Art. 20.3; but see Art. H.6.2).
Ex. 44. Pseudo-fumaria Medik. (Philos. Bot. 1: 110. 1789) may not be changed to ‘Pseudofumaria’; whereas by conservation ‘Pseudo-elephantopus’ was changed to Pseudelephantopus Rohr (in Skr. Naturhist.-Selsk. 2: 214. 1792).
60.12. The use of a hyphen in the name of a fossil-genus is in all cases treated as an error to be corrected by deletion of the hyphen.
Ex. 45. ‘Cicatricosi-sporites’ R. Potonié & Gelletich (in Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin 1932: 522. 1932) and ‘Pseudo-Araucaria’ Fliche (in Bull. Soc. Sci. Nancy 14: 181. 1896) are names of fossil-genera. They are treated as errors to be corrected by deletion of the hyphen to Cicatricosisporites and Pseudoaraucaria, respectively.
60.13. The use of an apostrophe or quotation mark in an epithet is treated as an error to be corrected by deletion of the apostrophe or quotation mark unless it follows m to represent the patronymic prefix Mc (or Mc), in which case it is replaced by the letter c. The use of a full stop (period) in an epithet that is derived from a personal or geographical name that contains this full stop is treated as an error to be corrected by expansion or, when nomenclatural tradition does not support expansion (Art. 60.14), deletion of the full stop.
Ex. 46. In Cymbidium ‘i’ansoni’ Rolfe (in Orchid Rev. 8: 191. 1900), Lycium ‘o’donellii’ F. A. Barkley (in Lilloa 26: 202. 1953), and Solanum tuberosum var. ‘muru’kewillu’ Ochoa (in Phytologia 65: 112. 1988), the final epithet is to be spelled iansonii, odonellii, and murukewillu, respectively.
Ex. 47. In Nesoluma ‘St.-Johnianum’ Lam & Meeuse (in Occas. Pap. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Mus. 14: 153. 1938), derived from St. John, the family name of one of the collectors, the epithet is to be spelled st-johnianum.
Ex. 48. Harvey (Fl. Cap. 3: 494. 1865) published Stobaea ‘M‘Kenii’. The name commemorates one of the collectors of the type specimen, Mark Johnston McKen (1823–1872). The spelling has been changed to S. ‘mkenii’, but must be corrected to S. mckenii.
Ex. 49. In Allium ‘a.-bolosii’ P. Palau (in Anales Inst. Bot. Cavanilles 11: 485. 1953), dedicated to Antonio de Bolòs y Vayreda, the epithet is spelled antonii-bolosii.
60A.1. When a name of a new taxon or a replacement name, or its epithet, is to be derived from Greek, the transcription to Latin should conform to classical usage.
Ex. 1. The Greek spiritus asper (an inverted apostrophe) in words transcribed to Latin should be replaced by the letter h, as in Hyacinthus (from ὑάκινθος) and Rhododendron (from ῥοδόδενδρον).
(a) When the name of the person ends with a vowel, the letter ‑a is added (e.g. Ottoa after Otto; Sloanea after Sloane), except when the name ends with ‑a, when ‑ea is added (e.g. Collaea after Colla), or with ‑ea, when nothing is added (e.g. Correa).
(b) When the name of the person ends with a consonant, the letters ‑ia are added, but when the name ends with ‑er, either of the terminations ‑ia and ‑a is appropriate (e.g. Sesleria after Sesler and Kernera after Kerner).
(c) In latinized personal names ending with ‑us this termination is dropped before applying the procedure described under (a) and (b) (e.g. Dillenia after Dillenius).
Note 2. More than one generic name, or epithet of a subdivision of a genus, may be based on the same personal name, e.g. by adding a prefix or suffix to that personal name or by using an anagram or abbreviation of it (but see Art. 53.2 and 53.3).
Ex. 1. Bouchea Cham. (in Linnaea 7: 252. 1832) and Ubochea Baill. (Hist. Pl. 11: 103. 1891); Engleria O. Hoffm. (in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 10: 273. 1888), Englerella Pierre (Not. Bot.: 46. 1891), and Englerastrum Briq. (in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 19: 178. 1894); Gerardia L. (Sp. Pl.: 610. 1753) and Graderia Benth. (in Candolle, Prodr. 10: 521. 1846); Lapeirousia Pourr. (in Hist. & Mém. Acad. Roy. Sci. Toulouse 3: 79. 1788) and Peyrousea DC. (Prodr. 6: 76. 1838); Martia Spreng. (Anleit. Kenntn. Gew., ed. 2, 2: 788. 1818) and Martiusia Schult. (Mant. 1: 69, 226. 1822); Orcuttia Vasey (in Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 13: 219. 1886) and Tuctoria Reeder (in Amer. J. Bot. 69: 1090. 1982); Urvillea Kunth (in Humboldt & al., Nov. Gen. Sp. 5, ed. qu.: 105; ed. fol.: 81. 1821) and Durvillaea Bory (Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. 9: 192. 1826) (see Art. 53 *Ex. 12).
60C.1. When forming specific and infraspecific epithets from personal names already in Greek or Latin, or that possess a well-established latinized form, the epithets, when substantival, should (Art. 60.8 notwithstanding) be given the appropriate Latin genitive form (e.g. alexandri from Alexander or Alexandre, alberti from Albert, arnoldi from Arnold, augusti from Augustus or August or Auguste, ferdinandi from Ferdinand or Fernando or Fernand, martini from Martinus or Martin, linnaei from Linnaeus, martii from Martius, wislizeni from Wislizenus, edithae from Editha or Edith, elisabethae from Elisabetha or Elisabeth, murielae from Muriela or Muriel, conceptionis from Conceptio or Concepción, beatricis from Beatrix or Béatrice, hectoris from Hector; but not ‘cami’ from Edmond Gustave Camus or Aimée Camus). Treating modern family names, i.e. ones that do not have a well-established latinized form, as if they were in third declension should be avoided (e.g. munronis from Munro, richardsonis from Richardson).
60C.2. New epithets based on personal names that have a well-established latinized form should maintain the traditional use of that latinized form.
Ex. 1. In addition to the epithets in Rec. 60C.1, the following epithets commemorate personal names already in Latin or possessing a well-established latinized form: (a) second declension: afzelii based on Afzelius; allemanii based on Allemanius (Freire Allemão); bauhini based on Bauhinus (Bauhin); clusii based on Clusius; rumphii based on Rumphius (Rumpf); solandri based on Solandrus (Solander); (b) third declension (otherwise discouraged, see Rec. 60C.1): bellonis based on Bello; brunonis based on Bruno (Robert Brown); chamissonis based on Chamisso; (c) adjectives (see Art. 23.5): afzelianus, clusianus, linnaeanus, martianus, rumphianus, brunonianus, and chamissonianus.
60C.3. In forming new epithets based on personal names the customary spelling of the personal name should not be modified unless it contains letters, ligatures, or diacritical signs that must be transcribed under Art. 60.4 and 60.7.
60C.4. In forming new epithets based on personal names prefixes and particles should be treated as follows:
(a) The Scottish and Irish patronymic prefix Mac, Mc, Mc, or M‘, meaning “son of”, should either all be spelled as mac or the latter three as mc and united with the rest of the name (e.g. macfadyenii after Macfadyen, macgillivrayi after MacGillivray, macnabii or mcnabii after McNab, macclellandii or mcclellandii after M‘Clelland).
(b) The Irish patronymic prefix O should be united with the rest of the name (Art. 60.13) or omitted (e.g. obrienii, brienianus after O’Brien, okellyi after O’Kelly).
(c) A prefix consisting of an article (e.g. le, la, l’, les, el, il, lo), or containing an article (e.g. du, de la, des, del, della), should be united to the name (e.g. leclercii after Le Clerc, dubuyssonii after Du Buysson, lafarinae after La Farina, logatoi after Lo Gato). See Art. 23.1 and Art. 60 Ex. 43 for cases where such epithets were originally spelled in two words.
(d) A prefix to a person’s family name indicating ennoblement or canonization should be omitted (e.g. candollei after de Candolle, jussieui after de Jussieu, hilairei after Saint-Hilaire, remyi after St Rémy); in geographical epithets, however, “St” should be rendered as sanctus (m) or sancta (f) (e.g. sancti-johannis, of St John, sanctae-helenae, of St Helena).
(e) A German or Dutch prefix should be omitted (e.g. iheringii after von Ihering, martii after von Martius, steenisii after van Steenis, strassenii after zu Strassen, vechtii after van der Vecht), but when it is normally treated as part of the family name it should be included in the epithet (e.g. vonhausenii after Vonhausen, vanderhoekii after Vanderhoek, vanbruntiae after Van Brunt).
60D.1. An epithet derived from a geographical name is preferably an adjective and usually takes one of the terminations ‑ensis, ‑(a)nus, ‑inus, or ‑icus.
Ex. 1. Rubus quebecensis L. H. Bailey (from Quebec), Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch (from Virginia), Eryngium amorginum Rech. f. (from Amorgos), Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall (from Pennsylvania).
60E.1. The epithet in a name of a new taxon or replacement name should be written in conformity with the customary spelling of the word or words from which it is derived and in accordance with the accepted usage of Latin and latinization (see also Art. 23.5).
Ex. 1. sinensis (not chinensis).
60F.1. All specific and infraspecific epithets should be written with an initial lower-case letter.
60G.1. A name or epithet that combines elements derived from two or more Greek or Latin words should be formed, as far as practicable, in accordance with classical usage, subject to the provisions of Art. 60.10.
(a) Exceptions to the procedure outlined in Art. 60.10 are common, and one should review earlier usages of a particular compounding form. In forming apparently irregular compounds, classical usage is commonly followed.
Ex. 1. The compounding forms hydro- and hydr- (Hydro-phyllum) stem from water (hydor, hydatos); calli- (Calli-stemon) derives from the adjective beautiful (kalos); and meli- (Meli-osma, Meli-lotus) stems from honey (meli, melitos).
(b) In pseudocompounds, a noun or adjective in a non-final position appears as a word with a case ending, not as a modified stem. Examples are: nidus-avis (nest of bird, nominative), Myos-otis (mouse ear, genitive), albo-marginatus (white-margined, ablative), etc. In epithets where tingeing is expressed, the modifying colour is often in the ablative because the preposition e or ex is implicit, e.g. atropurpureus (blackish purple) from “ex atro purpureus” (purple tinged with black). Pseudocompounds, in particular those using the genitive singular of Latin first-declension nouns, are considered as correctable errors under Art. 60.10, except when they serve to reveal semantic differences between identically spelled regular compounds formed from different elements.
Ex. 2. The Latin words for tube (tubus, tubi) and for trumpet (tuba, tubae) in regular compounds result in identical epithets (e.g. tubiformis), whereas the pseudocompound tubaeformis can only mean trumpet-formed, as in Cantharellus tubaeformis Fr. (Syst. Mycol. 1: 319. 1821) : Fr.
Ex. 3. Regular compounds derived from papaya (Carica, Caricae) and sedge (Carex, Caricis) are identical, whereas the pseudocompound caricaefolius can only mean papaya-leaved, as in Solanum caricaefolium Rusby (in Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 8: 118. 1912).
60H.1. When naming new genera or lower-ranked taxa or providing replacement names, authors should explicitly state the etymology of the names and epithets, especially when their meaning is not obvious.