Article 56

56.1. Any name that would cause a disadvantageous nomenclatural change (Art. 14.1) may be proposed for rejection. A name thus rejected, or its basionym if it has one, is placed on a list of nomina utique rejicienda (suppressed names, App. V). Along with each listed name, all names for which it is the basionym are similarly rejected, and none is to be used (see Rec. 50E.2).

Note 1. A name rejected under Art. 56.1 does not become illegitimate on account of its rejection and can continue to provide the type of a name at higher rank. Similarly, a combination under a rejected name, although unavailable for use because of the inclusion of the rejected name, may be legitimate, and may serve as basionym for another combination.

56.2. The list of nomina utique rejicienda (suppressed names) will remain permanently open for additions and changes. Any proposal for rejection of a name must be accompanied by a detailed statement of the cases both for and against its rejection, including considerations of typification. Such proposals must be submitted to the General Committee, which will refer them for examination to the specialist committees for the various taxonomic groups (see Rec. 56A, Div. III Prov. 2.2, 7.9, and 7.10; see also Art. 14.12 and 34.1).

56.3. When a proposal for the rejection of a name under Art. 56 or F.7 has been approved by the General Committee after study by the specialist committee for the taxonomic group concerned, rejection of that name is authorized subject to the decision of a later International Botanical Congress (see also Art. 14.15 and 34.2). Rejection takes effect on the date of effective publication (Art. 2931) of the General Committee’s approval.

Note 2. The date of the General Committee decision on a particular rejection proposal can be determined by consulting the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants Appendices database (

Recommendation 56A

56A.1. When a proposal for the rejection of a name under Art. 56 or F.7 has been referred to the appropriate specialist committee for study, authors should follow existing usage of names as far as possible pending the General Committee’s recommendation on the proposal (see also Rec. 14A and 34A).