GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS ON CITATION
50A.1. In the citation of a designation that is not validly published because it was merely cited as a synonym (Art. 36.1(b)), the words “as synonym” or “pro syn.” should be added.
50B.1. In the citation of a nomen nudum, its status should be indicated by adding the words “nomen nudum” or “nom. nud.”
Ex. 1. “Carex bebbii” (Olney, Carices Bor.-Amer. 2: 12. 1871), published without a description or diagnosis, should be cited as Carex bebbii Olney, nomen nudum (or nom. nud.).
50C.1. The citation of a later homonym should be followed by the name of the author of the earlier homonym preceded by the word “non”, preferably with the date of publication added. In some instances it will be advisable to cite also any other homonyms, preceded by the word “nec”.
Ex. 1. Ulmus racemosa Thomas in Amer. J. Sci. Arts 19: 170. 1831, non Borkh. 1800.
Ex. 2. Lindera Thunb., Nov. Gen. Pl.: 64. 1783, non Adans. 1763.
Ex. 3. Bartlingia Brongn. in Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 10: 373. 1827, non Rchb. 1824 nec F. Muell. 1882.
50D.1. Misidentifications should not be included in synonymies but added after them. A misapplied name should be indicated by the words “auct. non” followed by the name(s) of the original author(s) and the bibliographic reference of the misidentification.
Ex. 1. Ficus stortophylla Warb. in Ann. Mus. Congo Belge, Bot., ser. 4, 1: 32. 1904. F. irumuensis De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 1: 341. 1922. F. exasperata auct. non Vahl: De Wildeman & Durand in Ann. Mus. Congo Belge, Bot., ser. 2, 1: 54. 1899; De Wildeman, Miss. Ém. Laurent: 26. 1905; Durand & Durand, Syll. Fl. Congol.: 505. 1909.
50E.1. After a conserved name (nomen conservandum; see Art. 14 and App. II–IV) the abbreviation “nom. cons.” or, in the case of a conserved spelling, “orth. cons.” (orthographia conservanda) should be added in a formal citation.
Ex. 1. Protea L., Mant. Pl.: 187. 1771, nom. cons., non L. 1753.
Ex. 2. Combretum Loefl. 1758, nom. cons. [= Grislea L. 1753].
Ex. 3. Glechoma L. 1753, orth. cons., ‘Glecoma’.
Ex. 4. Betula alba L. 1753, nom. rej.
Ex. 5. Dryobalanops sumatrensis (J. F. Gmel.) Kosterm. in Blumea 33: 346. 1988, nom. rej.
50F.1. If a name is cited with alterations from the form as originally published, it is desirable that in full citations the exact original form should be added, preferably between single or double quotation marks.
Ex. 1. Pyrus calleryana Decne. (P. mairei H. Lév. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12: 189. 1913, ‘Pirus’).
Ex. 2. Zanthoxylum cribrosum Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1: 946. 1824, ‘Xanthoxylon’ (Z. caribaeum var. floridanum (Nutt.) A. Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 23: 225. 1888, ‘Xanthoxylum’).
Ex. 3. Spathiphyllum solomonense Nicolson in Amer. J. Bot. 54: 496. 1967, ‘solomonensis’.
50G.1. Authors should avoid mentioning in their publications previously unpublished names that they do not accept, especially if the persons responsible for these unpublished names have not formally authorized their publication (see Rec. 23A.3(i)).