Recommendation 50A

50A.1. In the citation of a designation that is not validly published because it was merely cited as a synonym (Art. 36.1(b)), the words “as synonym” or “pro syn.” should be added.

Recommendation 50B

50B.1. In the citation of a nomen nudum, its status should be indicated by adding the words “nomen nudum” or “nom. nud.”

Ex. 1. “Carex bebbii” (Olney, Carices Bor.-Amer. 2: 12. 1871), published without a description or diagnosis, should be cited as Carex bebbii Olney, nomen nudum (or nom. nud.).

Recommendation 50C

50C.1. The citation of a later homonym should be followed by the name of the author of the earlier homonym preceded by the word “non”, preferably with the date of publication added. In some instances it will be advisable to cite also any other homonyms, preceded by the word “nec”.

Ex. 1. Ulmus racemosa Thomas in Amer. J. Sci. Arts 19: 170. 1831, non Borkh. 1800.

Ex. 2. Lindera Thunb., Nov. Gen. Pl.: 64. 1783, non Adans. 1763.

Ex. 3. Bartlingia Brongn. in Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 10: 373. 1827, non Rchb. 1824 nec F. Muell. 1882.

Recommendation 50D

50D.1. Misidentifications should not be included in synonymies but added after them. A misapplied name should be indicated by the words “auct. non” followed by the name(s) of the original author(s) and the bibliographic reference of the misidentification.

Ex. 1. Ficus stortophylla Warb. in Ann. Mus. Congo Belge, Bot., ser. 4, 1: 32. 1904. F. irumuensis De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 1: 341. 1922. F. exasperata auct. non Vahl: De Wildeman & Durand in Ann. Mus. Congo Belge, Bot., ser. 2, 1: 54. 1899; De Wildeman, Miss. Ém. Laurent: 26. 1905; Durand & Durand, Syll. Fl. Congol.: 505. 1909.

Recommendation 50E

50E.1. After a conserved name (nomen conservandum; see Art. 14 and App. II–IV) the abbreviation “nom. cons.” or, in the case of a conserved spelling, “orth. cons.” (orthographia conservanda) should be added in a formal citation.

Ex. 1. Protea L., Mant. Pl.: 187. 1771, nom. cons., non L. 1753.

Ex. 2. Combretum Loefl. 1758, nom. cons. [= Grislea L. 1753].

Ex. 3. Glechoma L. 1753, orth. cons., ‘Glecoma’.

50E.2. After a name rejected under Art. 56 (nomen utique rejiciendum, suppressed name; see App. V) the abbreviation “nom. rej.” should be added in a formal citation.

Ex. 4. Betula alba L. 1753, nom. rej.

Note 1. Rec. 50E.2 also applies to any combination based on a nomen utique rejiciendum (suppressed name; see Art. 56.1).

Ex. 5. Dryobalanops sumatrensis (J. F. Gmel.) Kosterm. in Blumea 33: 346. 1988, nom. rej.

Recommendation 50F

50F.1. If a name is cited with alterations from the form as originally published, it is desirable that in full citations the exact original form should be added, preferably between single or double quotation marks.

Ex. 1. Pyrus calleryana Decne. (P. mairei H. Lév. in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12: 189. 1913, ‘Pirus’).

Ex. 2. Zanthoxylum cribrosum Spreng., Syst. Veg. 1: 946. 1824, ‘Xanthoxylon’ (Z. caribaeum var. floridanum (Nutt.) A. Gray in Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 23: 225. 1888, ‘Xanthoxylum’).

Ex. 3. Spathiphyllum solomonense Nicolson in Amer. J. Bot. 54: 496. 1967, ‘solomonensis’.

Recommendation 50G

50G.1. Authors should avoid mentioning in their publications previously unpublished names that they do not accept, especially if the persons responsible for these unpublished names have not formally authorized their publication (see Rec. 23A.3(i)).