VALID PUBLICATION OF NAMES
32.1. In order to be validly published, a name of a taxon (autonyms excepted) must: (a) be effectively published (Art. 29–31) on or after the starting-point date of the respective group (Art. 13.1 and F.1.1); (b) be composed only of letters of the Latin alphabet, except as provided in Art. 23.3, 60.4, 60.7, and 60.11–14; and (c) have a form that complies with the provisions of Art. 16–27 (but see Art. 21.4 and 24.4) and Art. H.6 and H.7 (see also Art. 61).
Note 1. The use of typographical signs, numerals, or letters of a non-Latin alphabet in the arrangement of taxa (such as Greek letters α, β, γ, etc. in the arrangement of varieties under a species) does not prevent valid publication because rank-denoting terms and devices are not part of the name.
32.2. Names above the rank of species are validly published even when they or their epithets were published with an improper Latin termination but otherwise in accordance with this Code; they are to be changed to accord with Art. 16–19 and 21, without change of authorship or date. Names of species or infraspecific taxa are validly published even when their epithets were published with an improper Latin or transcribed Greek termination but otherwise in accordance with this Code; they are to be changed to accord with Art. 23 and 24, without change of authorship or date (see also Art. 60.8).
Ex. 1. The epithet in Cassia “*” ‘Chamaecristae’ L. (Sp. Pl.: 379. 1753), the name of a subdivision of a genus, is a noun in the nominative plural, derived from “Chamaecrista”, a pre-Linnaean generic designation. Under Art. 21.2, however, this epithet must have the same form as a generic name, i.e. a noun in the nominative singular (Art. 20.1). The name is to be changed accordingly and is cited as Cassia [unranked] Chamaecrista L.
Note 2. Improper terminations of otherwise correctly formed names or epithets may result from the use of an inflectional form other than that required by Art. 32.2.
Ex. 2. Senecio sect. Synotii Benth. (in Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Pl. 2: 448. 1873) was validly published with reference to certain species that constituted a section (“in speciebus … sectionem subdistinctam (Synotios) constituentibus”). Although the sectional epithet was written as an adjective in the accusative plural (because it was a direct object), it is to be cited in the nominative plural, S. sect. Synotii, as required by Art. 21.2.
32.3. Autonyms (Art. 6.8) are accepted as validly published names, dating from the publication in which they were established (see Art. 22.3 and 26.3), whether or not they actually appear in that publication.
32.4. In order to be validly published, names of hybrids at specific or lower rank with Latin epithets must comply with the same rules as names of non-hybrid taxa at the same rank.
Ex. 3. “Nepeta ×faassenii” (Bergmans, Vaste Pl. Rotsheesters, ed. 2: 544. 1939, with a description in Dutch; Lawrence in Gentes Herb. 8: 64. 1949, with a diagnosis in English) is not validly published because it is not accompanied by or associated with a Latin description or diagnosis (Art. 39.1). The name Nepeta ×faassenii Bergmans ex Stearn (in J. Roy. Hort. Soc. 75: 405. 1950) is validly published because it is accompanied by a Latin description.
Ex. 4. “Rheum ×cultorum” (Thorsrud & Reisaeter, Norske Plantenavn: 95. 1948) is a nomen nudum and is not therefore validly published (Art. 38.1(a)).
Ex. 5. “Fumaria ×salmonii” (Druce, List Brit. Pl.: 4. 1908) is not validly published (Art. 38.1(a)) because only the presumed parentage (F. densiflora × F. officinalis) was stated.
Note 3. For names of hybrids at the rank of genus or of a subdivision of a genus, see Art. H.9.
Note 4. For valid publication of names of organisms originally assigned to a group not covered by this Code, see Art. 45.
32A.1. When publishing nomenclatural novelties, authors should indicate this by a phrase including the word “novus” or its abbreviation, e.g. genus novum (gen. nov., new genus), species nova (sp. nov., new species), combinatio nova (comb. nov., new combination), nomen novum (nom. nov., replacement name), or status novus (stat. nov., name at new rank).