DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED IN THIS CODE
The particular usage of a few other words, not defined in the Code, is also indicated; these are italicized in the list below and are accompanied by editorial explanation of their use.
admixture. [Not defined] – something mixed in, especially a minor ingredient, used for components of a gathering that represent a taxon or taxa other than that intended by the collector, and that do not preclude the gathering, or part thereof, being a type specimen, the admixture being disregarded (Art. 8.2).
alternative family name (nomen alternativum). One of eight family names, each regularly formed from a generic name in accordance with Art. 18.1, allowed as an alternative (Art. 18.6) to one of the family names of long usage treated as validly published under Art. 18.5.
alternative names. Two or more different names based on the same type proposed simultaneously for the same taxon by the same author (Art. 36.2).
analysis. A figure or group of figures, commonly separate from the main illustration of the organism (though usually on the same page or plate), showing details aiding identification, with or without a separate caption (Art. 38.9).
ascription. The direct association of the name of a person or persons with a new name or description or diagnosis of a taxon (Art. 46.3).
automatic typification. (1) Typification of a nomenclaturally superfluous and illegitimate name by the type of the name which ought to have been adopted under the rules (Art. 7.5). (2) Typification of the name of a taxon above the rank of genus by the type of the generic name on which it is based (Art. 10.6 and 10.7).
autonym. An automatically established name in which a generic name or specific epithet is repeated as the final epithet in the name of a subdivision of a genus or of an infraspecific taxon that includes the type of the adopted, legitimate name of the genus or species, respectively; the final epithet of an autonym is not followed by an author citation (Art. 22.1 and 26.1). [Autonyms do not exist above the rank of genus.]
available. [Not defined] – applied to an epithet in a name (Art. 11.5 and 15.5), the type of which falls within the circumscription of the taxon under consideration and where the use of the epithet would not be contrary to the rules (see also available name).
available name. A name published under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature with a status equivalent to that of a validly published name under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Art. 45.1 footnote).
avowed substitute. See replacement name.
basionym. The legitimate, previously published name on which a new combination or name at new rank is based. The basionym provides the final epithet, name, or stem of the new combination or name at new rank (Art. 6.10) (see also name at new rank, new combination).
binary combination (binomial). A generic name combined with a specific epithet to form a species name (Art. 23.1).
binding decision. A recommendation made by the General Committee and ratified by an International Botanical Congress on (1) whether or not a name is validly published (Art. 38.4) or (2) whether or not names are to be treated as homonyms (Art. 53.5). Binding decisions are listed in (1) App. VII or (2) VIII.
binomial. See binary combination.
combinatio nova (comb. nov.). See new combination.
combination. A name of a taxon below the rank of genus, consisting of the name of a genus combined with one or two epithets (Art. 6.7).
compound. A name or epithet that combines elements derived from two or more Greek or Latin words, a regular compound being one in which a noun or adjective in a non-final position appears as a modified stem (Rec. 60G.1(a)) (see also pseudocompound).
confusingly similar names. Orthographically similar names at the rank of genus or below that are likely to be confused and are to be treated as homonyms if heterotypic (Art. 53.3, 53.4) or as orthographical variants if homotypic (Art. 61.5). Binding decisions may be made on whether or not the former are to be treated as homonyms (Art. 53.5 and App. VIII).
conserved name (nomen conservandum). (1) A name of a family, genus, or species, or in certain cases a name of a subdivision of a genus or of an infraspecific taxon, ruled as legitimate and with precedence over other specified names even though it may have been illegitimate when published or lack priority (Art. 14.1-14.7, 14.10, App. II, III, and IV). (2) A name for which the type, orthography, or gender has been fixed by the conservation process (Art. 14.9, 14.11, App. III, and IV).
cultivar. The basic independent category used for organisms in agriculture, forestry, and horticulture and defined and regulated in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (Art. 28 Notes 2, 4, and 5).
date of name. The date of valid publication of a name (Art. 33.1).
descriptio generico-specifica. A single description simultaneously validating the names of a genus and its single species (Art. 38.5).
descriptive name. A name of a taxon above the rank of family not formed from a generic name (Art. 16.1(b)).
designation. [Not defined] – the term used for what appears to be a name but that (1) has not been validly published and hence is not a name in the sense of the Code (Art. 6.3 and 46.4) or (2) is not to be regarded as a name (Art. 20.4, 23.4, and 23.6).
diagnosis. A statement of that which in the opinion of its author distinguishes a taxon from other taxa (Art. 38.2); a diagnosis (or a description) is required for valid publication of a name (Art. 38.1(a)).
duplicate. Part of a single gathering of a single species or infraspecific taxon made by the same collector(s) at one time (Art. 8.3 footnote).
element (as applied to typification). [Not defined] – applied to a specimen or illustration eligible as a type; also applied to a species name considered as the full equivalent of its type for the purposes of designation or citation of the type of a name of a genus or subdivision of a genus (Art. 10.1).
epithet. [Not defined] – used for the words in a combination other than the generic name and any rank-denoting term; hyphenated words are equivalent to a single word (Art. 6.7, 11.4, 21.1, 23.1, and 24.1; see also Art. H.10.2).
epitype. A specimen or illustration selected to serve as an interpretative type when the holotype, lectotype, or previously designated neotype, or all original material associated with a validly published name, cannot be identified for the purpose of the precise application of the name to a taxon (Art. 9.8).
ex-type (ex typo), ex-holotype (ex holotypo), ex-isotype (ex isotypo), etc. A living isolate obtained from the type of a name when this is a culture permanently preserved in a metabolically inactive state (Rec. 8B.2).
final epithet. The last epithet in sequence in any particular combination, whether in the rank of a subdivision of a genus, or of a species, or of an infraspecific taxon (Art. 11.4 footnote).
forma specialis. See special form.
heterotypic synonym (taxonomic synonym). A name based on a type different from that of another name referring to the same taxon (Art. 14.4); termed a “subjective synonym” in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (Bacteriological Code) (Art. 14.4 footnote).
holotype. The one specimen or illustration used by the author, or designated by the author as the nomenclatural type (Art. 9.1).
homonym. A name spelled exactly like another name published for a taxon of the same rank based on a different type (Art. 53.1). Note: names of subdivisions of the same genus or of infraspecific taxa within the same species that are based on different types and have the same final epithet are homonyms even if they differ in rank, the rank-denoting term not being part of the name (Art. 53.4).
homotypic synonym (nomenclatural synonym). A name based on the same type as that of another name (Art. 14.4); termed an “objective synonym” in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria (Bacteriological Code) (Art. 14.4 footnote).
hybrid formula. An expression consisting of the names of the parent taxa of a hybrid with a multiplication sign placed between them (Art. H.2.1).
illustration. A work of art or a photograph depicting a feature or features of an organism, e.g. a picture of a herbarium specimen or a scanning electron micrograph (Art. 8.1 footnote).
indelible autograph. Handwritten material reproduced by some mechanical or graphic process (such as lithography, offset, or metallic etching) (Art. 30.5).
indirect reference. A clear (if cryptic) indication, by an author citation or in some other way, that a previously and effectively published description or diagnosis applies (Art. 38.14) or that a basionym or replaced synonym exists (Art. 41.3).
informal usage. Usage of the same rank-denoting term at more than one non-successive position in the taxonomic sequence. Note: names involved in such usage are validly published but unranked (Art. 37.8).
infraspecific. [Not defined] – below the rank of species.
isoepitype. A duplicate specimen of the epitype (Rec. 9C).
isolectotype. A duplicate specimen of the lectotype (Rec. 9C).
isoneotype. A duplicate specimen of the neotype (Rec. 9C).
isonym. The same name based on the same type, published independently at different times perhaps by different authors. Note: only the earliest isonym has nomenclatural status (Art. 6 Note 2; but see Art. 14.15).
isosyntype. A duplicate of a syntype (Art. 9.12).
isotype. A duplicate specimen of the holotype (Art. 9.4).
lectotype. A specimen or illustration designated from the original material as the nomenclatural type if no holotype was indicated at the time of publication, or if the holotype is missing, or if a type is found to belong to more than one taxon (Art. 9.2).
legitimate name. A validly published name that is in accordance with the rules, i.e. one that is not illegitimate (Art. 6.5) (see also illegitimate name).
monotypic genus. A genus for which a single binomial is validly published (Art. 38.6) (see also unispecific).
name. A name that has been validly published, whether it is legitimate or illegitimate (Art. 6.3) (see also designation).
name at new rank (status novus). A new name based on a legitimate, previously published name at a different rank, which is its basionym and which provides the final epithet, name, or stem of the name at new rank (Art. 6.10 and 7.3) (see also basionym, new combination).
name of a new taxon. A name validly published in its own right, i.e. one not based on a previously validly published name; it is not a new combination, a name at new rank (status novus), or a replacement name (avowed substitute, nomen novum) (Art. 6.9).
neotype. A specimen or illustration selected to serve as nomenclatural type if no original material is extant or as long as it is missing (Art. 9.7).
new combination (combinatio nova). A new name of rank lower than genus based on a legitimate, previously published name, which is its basionym and which provides the final epithet of the new combination (Art. 6.10 and 7.3) (see also basionym, name at new rank).
new name. [Not defined] – A name as it appears in the place of its valid publication (see also nomenclatural novelty).
nomen alternativum (nom. alt.). See alternative family name.
nomen conservandum (nom. cons.). See conserved name.
nomen novum (nom. nov.). See replacement name.
nomen utique rejiciendum (suppressed name). A name ruled as rejected under Art. 56.1. Note: it and all names for which it is a basionym are not to be used (see App. V).
nomenclatural synonym. See homotypic synonym.
nomenclatural type. The element to which the name of a taxon is permanently attached (Art. 7.2).
non-fossil taxon. A taxon the name of which is based on a non-fossil type (Art. 13.3).
nothogenus. A hybrid genus (Art. 3.2).
nothomorph. A term formerly denoting the only infraspecific rank, equivalent to variety, permitted within nothospecies. Names published as nothomorphs are now treated as names of varieties (Art. H.12.2 and footnote).
nothospecies. A hybrid species (Art. 3.2).
objective synonym. See homotypic synonym.
opera utique oppressa. See suppressed works.
organism. As used in this Code, the term is applied only to organisms traditionally studied by botanists, mycologists, and phycologists (Pre. 2 footnote, Pre. 8).
original spelling. The spelling employed when a name of a new taxon or a replacement name was validly published (Art. 60.2).
orthographical variants. Various spelling, compounding, and inflectional forms of a name or its final epithet, only one nomenclatural type being involved (Art. 61.2).
page reference. Citation of the page or pages on which the basionym or replaced synonym was validly published or on which the protologue appears (Art. 41 Note 1).
paratype. Any specimen cited in the protologue that is neither the holotype nor an isotype, nor one of the syntypes if in the protologue two or more specimens were simultaneously designated as types (Art. 9.6).
priority. A right to precedence established by the date of valid publication of a legitimate name (Art. 11) or of an earlier homonym (Art. 53 Note 1), or by the date of designation of a type (Art. 7.9 and 7.10).
protologue. Everything associated with a name at its valid publication, e.g. description, diagnosis, illustrations, references, synonymy, geographical data, citation of specimens, discussion, and comments (Rec. 8A.4 footnote).
provisional name. A designation proposed in anticipation of the future acceptance of the taxon concerned, or of a particular circumscription, position, or rank of the taxon (Art. 36.1).
pseudocompound. A name or epithet that combines elements derived from two or more Greek or Latin words and in which a noun or adjective in a non-final position appears as a word with a case ending, not as a modified stem (Rec. 60G.1(c)) (see also compound).
rank. [Not defined] – used for the relative position of a taxon in the taxonomic hierarchy (Art. 2.1).
rejected name. A name ruled as not to be used, either by formal action under Art. 14 or 56.1 overriding other provisions of the Code (see nomen rejiciendum, nomen utique rejiciendum) or because it was nomenclaturally superfluous when published (Art. 52) or a later homonym (Art. 53 and 54).
replaced synonym. The legitimate or illegitimate, previously published name on which a replacement name (avowed substitute, nomen novum) is based. The replaced synonym, when legitimate, does not provide the final epithet, name, or stem of the replacement name (Art. 6.11).
replacement name (avowed substitute, nomen novum). A new name based on a legitimate or illegitimate, previously published name, which is its replaced synonym and which, when legitimate, does not provide the final epithet, name, or stem of the replacement name (Art. 6.11 and 7.4).
sanctioned name. The name of a fungus treated as if conserved against earlier homonyms and competing synonyms, through acceptance in a sanctioning work (Art. 15).
special form (forma specialis). A taxon of parasites, especially fungi, characterized from a physiological standpoint but scarcely or not at all from a morphological standpoint, the nomenclature of which is not governed by this Code (Art. 4 Note 4).
specimen. A gathering, or part of a gathering, of a single species or infraspecific taxon made at one time, disregarding admixtures, mounted either as a single preparation or as more than one preparation with the parts clearly labelled as being part of the same specimen (Art. 8.2 and 8.3).
status. (1) Nomenclatural standing with regard to effective publication, valid publication, legitimacy, and correctness (Art. 6 and 12.1). (2) Rank of a taxon within the taxonomic hierarchy (see name at new rank).
status novus (stat. nov.). See name at new rank.
subdivision of a family. Any taxon of a rank between family and genus (Art. 4 Note 2).
subdivision of a genus. Any taxon of a rank between genus and species (Art. 4 Note 2).
subjective synonym. See heterotypic synonym.
superfluous name. A name that, when published, was applied to a taxon that, as circumscribed by its author, definitely included the type of a name that ought to have been adopted, or of which the epithet ought to have been adopted, under the rules (Art. 52.1).
suppressed name. See nomen utique rejiciendum.
suppressed works (opera utique oppressa). Works, ruled as suppressed, in which names in specified ranks are not validly published (Art. 34.1 and App. VI).
synonym. [Not defined] – one of two or more names that apply to the same taxon (see heterotypic synonym, homotypic synonym).
syntype. Any specimen cited in the protologue when there is no holotype, or any of two or more specimens simultaneously designated in the protologue as types (Art. 9.5).
tautonym. A binary designation in which the specific epithet exactly repeats the generic name (Art. 23.4).
taxon (taxa). A taxonomic group at any rank (Art. 1.1).
taxonomic synonym. See heterotypic synonym.
type. See nomenclatural type.
type designation. [Not defined] – an explicit statement that establishes the type of a name; either (1) a holotype (Art. 9.1) or syntype(s) (Art. 9.5) designated in the protologue or (2) a lectotype, neotype, or epitype subsequently designated under the provisions of Art. 9-10 and in accordance with Art. 7.7-10.
unispecific. [Not defined] – with a single species.
validate. [Not defined] – to make validly published; used in the context of a description or diagnosis, or illustration, effecting valid publication of a name (e.g. Art. 38 Ex. 20, 43.3, and 46 Ex. 6).
voted example. An Example, denoted by an asterisk in the Code, accepted by an International Botanical Congress in order to govern nomenclatural practice when the corresponding Article is open to divergent interpretation or does not adequately cover the matter. A voted Example is therefore comparable to a rule, as contrasted with other Examples provided by the Editorial Committee solely for illustrative purposes (Art. 7 *Ex. 13 footnote).