CHAPTER IX. Orthography and gender of names
SECTION 1. Orthography
- The original spelling of a name or epithet is to be retained, except for the correction of typographical or orthographical errors and the standardizations imposed by Art. 60.4 (letters and ligatures foreign to classical Latin), 60.5 (u/v or i/j used interchangeably), 60.6 (diacritical signs and ligatures), 60.7 (intentional latinizations), 60.8 (compounding forms), 60.9 (hyphens), 60.10 (apostrophes and full stops), 60.11 (abbreviations), 60.12 (terminations; see also Art. 32.2), and 60.13 (epithets of fungal names) (see also Art. 14.11 and 15.1).
- Retention of original spelling: The generic names Mesembryanthemum L. (1753) and Amaranthus L. (1753) were deliberately so spelled by Linnaeus and the spelling is not to be altered to “Mesembrianthemum” and “Amarantus”, respectively, although these latter forms are philologically preferable (see Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1928: 113, 287. 1928). – Phoradendron Nutt. (1848) is not to be altered to “Phoradendrum”. – Triaspis mozambica A. Juss. (1843) is not to be altered to “T. mossambica”, as in Engler (Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C: 232. 1895). – Alyxia ceylanica Wight (1848) is not to be altered to “A. zeylanica”, as in Trimen (Handb. Fl. Ceylon 3: 127. 1895). – Fagus sylvatica L. (1753) is not to be altered to “F. silvatica”. Although the classical spelling is silvatica, the mediaeval spelling sylvatica is not an orthographical error (see also Rec. 60E). – Scirpus cespitosus L. (1753) is not to be altered to “S. caespitosus”.
- Typographical errors: Globba “brachycarpa” Baker (1890) and Hetaeria “alba” Ridl. (1896) are typographical errors for Globba trachycarpa Baker and Hetaeria alta Ridl., respectively (see J. Bot. 59: 349. 1921).
- “Torilis” taihasenzanensis Masam. (in J. Soc. Trop. Agric. 6: 570. 1934) was a typographical error for Trollius taihasenzanensis, as noted on the errata slip inserted between pages 4 and 5 of the same volume.
- The misspelled Indigofera “longipednnculata” Y. Y. Fang & C. Z. Zheng (1983) is presumably a typographical error and is to be corrected to I. longipedunculata.
- Orthographical error: Gluta “benghas” L. (1771), being an orthographical error for G. renghas, is cited as G. renghas L. (see Engler in Candolle & Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 4: 225. 1883); the vernacular name used as a specific epithet by Linnaeus is “renghas”, not “benghas”.
- Art. 14.11 provides for the conservation of a particular spelling of a name of a family, genus, or species (see Art. 14.8).
- Bougainvillea Comm. ex Juss. (‘Buginvillaea’), orth. cons. (see App. III).
- Wisteria Nutt. 1818, nom. cons. is not to be altered to Wistaria, although the genus was named in honour of Caspar Wistar, since Wisteria is the spelling used in App. III (see Art. 14.8).
- The words “original spelling” mean the spelling employed when a name of a new taxon or a replacement name was validly published. They do not refer to the use of an initial capital or lower-case letter, this being a matter of typography (see Art. 20.1 and 21.2, Rec. 60F).
- The liberty of correcting a name is to be used with reserve, especially if the change affects the first syllable and, above all, the first letter of the name.
- The spelling of the generic name Lespedeza Michx. (1803) is not to be altered, although it commemorates Vicente Manuel de Céspedes (see Rhodora 36: 130–132, 390–392. 1934). – Cereus jamacaru DC. (1828) may not be altered to C. “mandacaru”, even if jamacaru is believed to be a corruption of the vernacular name “mandacaru”.
- The letters w and y, foreign to classical Latin, and k, rare in that language, are permissible in scientific names (see Art. 32.1(b)). Other letters and ligatures foreign to classical Latin that may appear in scientific names, such as the German ß (double s), are to be transcribed.
- When a name has been published in a work where the letters u, v or i, j are used interchangeably or in any other way incompatible with modern practices (e.g. one letter of a pair not being used in capitals, or not at all), those letters are to be transcribed in conformity with modern nomenclatural usage.
- Curculigo Gaertn. (1788), not “Cvrcvligo”; Taraxacum Zinn (1757), not “Taraxacvm”; Uffenbachia Fabr. (1763), not “Vffenbachia”.
- “Geastrvm hygrometricvm” and “Vredo pvstvlata” of Persoon (1801) are spelled, respectively, Geastrum hygrometricum Pers. and Uredo pustulata Pers.
- Brachypodium “iaponicum” of Miquel (1866) is spelled Brachypodium japonicum Miq.
- Diacritical signs are not used in scientific names. When names (either new or old) are drawn from words in which such signs appear, the signs are to be suppressed with the necessary transcription of the letters so modified; for example ä, ö, ü become, respectively, ae, oe, ue; é, è, ê become e; ñ becomes n; ø becomes oe; å becomes ao. The diaeresis, indicating that a vowel is to be pronounced separately from the preceding vowel (as in Cephaëlis, Isoëtes), is a phonetic device that is not considered to alter the spelling; as such, its use is optional. The ligatures -æ- and -œ-, indicating that the letters are pronounced together, are to be replaced by the separate letters -ae- and -oe-.
- When changes in spelling by authors who adopt personal, geographical, or vernacular names in nomenclature are intentional latinizations, they are to be preserved, except in epithets when they concern (a) only a termination to which Art. 60.12 applies, or (b) personal names in which the changes involve (1) omission of the final vowel or final consonant or (2) conversion of the final vowel to a different vowel, for which that letter is to be restored.
- Clutia L. (1753), Gleditsia L. (1753), and Valantia L. (1753), commemorating Cluyt, Gleditsch, and Vaillant, respectively, are not to be altered to “Cluytia”, “Gleditschia”, and “Vaillantia”; Linnaeus deliberately latinized these personal names as Clutius, Gleditsius, and Valantius.
- Abies alcoquiana Veitch ex Lindl. (1861), commemorating “Rutherford Alcock Esq.”, implies an intentional latinization of his family name to Alcoquius. In transferring the epithet to Picea, Carrière (1867) deliberately changed the spelling to “alcockiana”. The resulting combination is nevertheless correctly cited as P. alcoquiana (Veitch ex Lindl.) Carrière (see Art. 61.4).
- Abutilon glaziovii K. Schum. (1891), Desmodium bigelovii A. Gray (1843), and Rhododendron bureavii Franch. (1887), commemorating A. F. M. Glaziou, J. Bigelow, and L. E. Bureau, respectively, are not to be changed to A. “glazioui”, D. “bigelowii”, or R. “bureaui”. In these three cases, the implicit latinizations Glaziovius, Bigelovius, and Bureavius result from conversion of the final vowel or consonant to a consonant and do not affect merely the termination of the names.
- Arnica chamissonis Less. (1831) and Tragus berteronianus Schult. (1824), commemorating L. K. A. von Chamisso and C. L. G. Bertero, are not to be changed to A. “chamissoi” or T. “berteroanus”. The derivation of these epithets from the third declension genitive (Rec. 60C Ex. 1(b) ), a practice normally discouraged (see Rec. 60C.2), involves the addition of letters to the personal name and does not affect merely the termination.
- Acacia “brandegeana”, Blandfordia “backhousii”, Cephalotaxus “fortuni”, Chenopodium “loureirei”, Convolvulus “loureiri”, Glochidion “melvilliorum”, Hypericum “buckleii”, Solanum “rantonnei”, and Zygophyllum “billardierii” were published to commemorate T. S. Brandegee, J. Backhouse, R. Fortune, J. de Loureiro, R. Melville and E. F. Melville, S. B. Buckley, V. Rantonnet, and J. J. H. de Labillardière (de la Billardière). The implicit latinizations are Brandegeus, Backhousius, Fortunus, Loureireus or Loureirus, Melvillius, Buckleius, Rantonneus, and Billardierius, but these are not acceptable under Art. 60.7. The names are correctly cited as A. brandegeeana I. M. Johnst. (1925), B. backhousei Gunn & Lindl. (1845), Cephalotaxus fortunei Hook. (1850), Chenopodium loureiroi Steud. (1840), Convolvulus loureiroi G. Don (1836), G. melvilleorum Airy Shaw (1971), H. buckleyi M. A. Curtis (1843), S. rantonnetii Carrière (1859), and Z. billardierei DC. (1824).
- Mycena seynii Quél. (in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 23: 351. 1877), commemorating Jules de Seynes, is not to be altered to M. “seynesii”. The implicit latinization of that name to Seynius results from omission of more than the final letter.
- The provisions of Art. 60.7, 60.12, and Rec. 60C deal with the latinization of names through their modification. Latinization is not the same as translation of a name (e.g. Tabernaemontanus, Latin for Bergzabern; Nobilis, Latin for Noble). Epithets derived from such Latin translations fall under Rec. 60C.2 and are not subject to standardization under Art. 60.7 or 60.12.
- In Wollemia nobilis W. G. Jones & al. (1995), nobilis, an adjective with genitive nobilis, is the translation into Latin of the family name of the discoverer David Noble. Cladonia abbatiana S. Steenroose (1991) honours the French lichenologist H. des Abbayes, where Abbayes can be translated to Abbatiae (abbeys). Neither epithet may be altered.
- Adjectival epithets that combine elements derived from two or more Greek or Latin words but are not formed in accordance with Rec. 60G.1(a) are to be corrected to conform with it, unless Rec. 60G.1(b) or (c) applies. In particular, the use, in pseudocompounding, of the genitive singular of Latin first-declension nouns (Rec. 60G.1(c)) instead of a regular compound (Rec. 60G.1(a)) is treated as an error to be corrected unless it serves to make an etymological distinction.
- The epithet of Pereskia “opuntiaeflora” DC. (1828) is to be spelled opuntiiflora, and that of Myrosma “cannaefolia” L. f. (1782), cannifolia.
- The epithet of Cacalia “napeaefolia” DC. (1838) and Senecio “napeaefolius” (DC.) Sch. Bip. (1845) is to be spelled napaeifolia (-us); it refers to the resemblance of the leaves to those found in Napaea L. (not “Napea”), and the connecting vowel -i- should have been used instead of the genitive singular inflection -ae-.
- In Andromeda polifolia L. (1753), the epithet is taken from a pre-Linnaean generic designation (“Polifolia” of Buxbaum) and is a noun used in apposition, not an adjective; it is not to be altered to “poliifolia” (Polium-leaved).
- Tetragonia tetragonoides (Pall.) Kuntze (1891) was based on Demidovia tetragonoides Pall. (1781), the specific epithet of which was derived from the generic name Tetragonia and the suffix -oides. Since this is a compound epithet derived from a noun and a suffix, not two Greek or Latin words, it is not to be altered to “tetragonioides”.
- The use of a hyphen in a compound epithet is treated as an error to be corrected by deletion of the hyphen. A hyphen is permitted only when the epithet is formed of words that usually stand independently, or when the letters before and after the hyphen are the same (see also Art. 23.1 and 23.3).
- Hyphen to be omitted: Acer pseudoplatanus L. (1753), not “pseudo-platanus”; Croton ciliatoglandulifer Ortega (1797), not “ciliato-glandulifer”; Eugenia costaricensis O. Berg (1856), not “costa-ricensis”; Ficus neoebudarum Summerh. (1932), not “neo-ebudarum”; Lycoperdon atropurpureum Vittad. (1842), not “atro-purpureum”; Scirpus sect. Pseudoeriophorum Jurtzev (in Byull. Moskovsk. Obshch. Isp. Prir., Otd. Biol. 70(1): 132. 1965), not “Pseudo-eriophorum”.
- Hyphen to be maintained: Athyrium austro-occidentale Ching (1986), Piper pseudo-oblongum McKown (1928), Ribes non-scriptum (Berger) Standl. (1930), Vitis novae-angliae Fernald (1917).
- Hyphen to be inserted: in Arctostaphylos “uva ursi” (L.) Spreng. (1825), Aster “novae angliae” L. (1753), and Coix “lacryma jobi” L. (1753) the epithet is to be spelled uva-ursi, novae-angliae, and lacryma-jobi, respectively; in Marattia “rolandi principis” Rosenst. (1911), rolandii-principis (see Art. 60.12); in Vaccinium sect. “Vitis idaea” W. D. J. Koch (1837), Vitis-idaea; in Veronica “anagallis ∇” L. (1753), anagallis-aquatica (see Art. 23.3).
- Art. 60.9 refers only to epithets (in combinations), not to names of genera or taxa in higher ranks; a generic name published with a hyphen can be changed only by conservation (Art. 14.11; see also Art. 20.3).
- The use of an apostrophe in an epithet is treated as an error to be corrected by deletion of the apostrophe. The use of a full stop (period) in an epithet that is derived from a personal or geographical name that contains this full stop is treated as an error to be corrected by deletion of the full stop.
- In Cymbidium “i’ansoni” Rolfe (1900), Lycium “o’donellii” F. A. Barkley (1953), and Solanum tuberosum var. “muru’kewillu” Ochoa (in Phytologia 65: 112. 1988), the final epithet is to be spelled iansonii, odonellii, and murukewillu, respectively.
- In Nesoluma “St.-Johnianum” Lam & Meeuse (1938), derived from St. John, the family name of one of the collectors, the epithet is to be spelled st-johnianum.
- Abbreviated names and epithets are to be expanded in conformity with nomenclatural tradition (see also Art. 23 *Ex. 19).
- The use of a termination (for example -i, -ii, -ae, -iae, -anus, or -ianus) contrary to Rec. 60C.1 is treated as an error to be corrected (see also Art. 32.2). However, terminations of epithets formed in accordance with Rec. 60C.2 are not to be corrected.
- In Rhododendron “potanini” Batalin (1892), commemorating G. N. Potanin, the epithet is to be spelled potaninii under Rec. 60C.1. However, in Phoenix theophrasti Greuter (1967), commemorating Theophrastus, it is not spelled “theophrastii” since Rec. 60C.2 applies.
- Rosa “pissarti” Carrière (in Rev. Hort. 1880: 314. 1880) is a typographical error for R. “pissardi” (see Rev. Hort. 1881: 190. 1881), which is to be spelled R. pissardii (see Rec. 60C.1(b)).
- In Uladendron codesuri Marc.-Berti (1971) the epithet derives from an acronym (CODESUR, Comisión para el Desarrollo del Sur de Venezuela), not a personal name, and is not to be changed to “codesurii” (as by Brenan in Index Kew., Suppl. 16: 296. 1981).
- In Asparagus tamaboki Yatabe (1893) and Agropyron kamoji Ohwi (1942) the epithets correspond, respectively, to a Japanese vernacular designation, “tamaboki”, or to part of such a designation, “kamojigusa”, and are not therefore spelled “tamabokii” and “kamojii”.
- If the gender and/or number of a substantival epithet derived from a personal name is inappropriate for the sex and/or number of the person(s) whom the name commemorates, the termination is to be corrected in conformity with Rec. 60C.1.
- Rosa ×“toddii” Wolley-Dod (in J. Bot. 69, Suppl.: 106. 1931) was named for “Miss E. S. Todd”; the epithet is to be spelled toddiae.
- Astragalus “matthewsii” Podlech & Kirchhoff (in Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 11: 432. 1974) commemorates Victoria A. Matthews; the epithet is to be spelled matthewsiae. A. matthewsiae is not a later homonym of A. matthewsii S. Watson (1883) (see Agerer-Kirchhoff & Podlech in Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 12: 375. 1976).
- Codium “geppii” (Schmidt in Biblioth. Bot. 91: 50. 1923), which commemorates A. Gepp and E. S. Gepp, is to be corrected to C. geppiorum O. C. Schmidt.
- Acacia “Bancrofti” Maiden (in Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 30: 26. 1918) “commemorates the Bancrofts, father and son, the former the late Dr. Joseph Bancroft, and the latter Dr. Thomas Lane Bancroft”; the epithet is to be spelled bancroftiorum.
- Chamaecrista leonardiae Britton (1930, ‘leonardae’), Scolosanthus leonardii Alain (1968), and Frankenia leonardiorum Alain (1968, ‘leonardorum’) were all based on type material collected by Emery C. Leonard and Genevieve M. Leonard. As there is no explicit contradicting statement, these names are to be accepted as dedicated to either or both, as indicated by the termination of the epithet.
- Epithets of fungal names derived from the generic name of an associated organism are to be spelled in accordance with the accepted spelling of the name of that organism; other spellings are regarded as orthographical variants to be corrected (see Art. 61).
- Phyllachora “anonicola” Chardón (in Mycologia 32: 190. 1940) is to be altered to P. annonicola Chardón, since “Anona” L. is a spelling correctable to Annona. – Meliola “albizziae” Hansf. & Deighton (in Mycol. Pap. 23: 26. 1948) is to be altered to M. albiziae, since the spelling “Albizzia” Durazz. is a spelling correctable to Albizia.
- When a name of a new taxon or a replacement name, or its epithet, is to be derived from Greek, the transcription to Latin should conform to classical usage.
- When a new generic name, or epithet in a new name of a subdivision of a genus, is taken from the name of a person, it should be formed as follows (see Rec. 20A.1(i)):
- When the name of the person ends with a vowel, the letter -a is added (thus Ottoa after Otto; Sloanea after Sloane), except when the name ends with -a, when -ea is added (e.g. Collaea after Colla), or with -ea (as Correa), when no letter is added.
- When the name of the person ends with a consonant, the letters -ia are added, but when the name ends with -er, either of the terminations -ia and -a is appropriate (e.g. Sesleria after Sesler and Kernera after Kerner).
- In latinized personal names ending with -us this termination is dropped before applying the procedure described under (a) and (b) (e.g. Dillenia after Dillenius).
- The syllables not modified by these endings are unaffected unless they contain letters, ligatures, or diacritical signs that must be transcribed under Art. 60.4 and 60.6.
- More than one generic name, or epithet of a subdivision of a genus, may be based on the same personal name, e.g. by adding a prefix or suffix to that personal name or by using an anagram or abbreviation of it.
- Durvillaea Bory (1826) and Urvillea Kunth (1821); Lapeirousia Pourr. (1788) and Peyrousea DC. (1838); Engleria O. Hoffm. (1888), Englerastrum Briq. (1894), and Englerella Pierre (1891); Bouchea Cham. (1832) and Ubochea Baill. (1891); Gerardia L. (1753) and Graderia Benth. (1846); Martia Spreng. (1818) and Martiusia Schult. & Schult. f. (1822).
- When personal names are given Latin terminations in order to form specific and infraspecific epithets, formation of those epithets is as follows (but see Rec. 60C.2):
- If the personal name ends with a vowel or -er, substantival epithets are formed by adding the genitive inflection appropriate to the sex and number of the person(s) honoured (e.g. scopoli-i for Scopoli (m), fedtschenko-i for Fedtschenko (m), fedtschenko-ae for Fedtschenko (f), glaziou-i for Glaziou (m), lace-ae for Lace (f), gray-i for Gray (m), hooker-orum for the Hookers (m)), except when the name ends with -a, in which case adding -e (singular) or -rum (plural) is appropriate (e.g. triana-e for Triana (m), pojarkova-e for Pojarkova (f), orlovskaja-e for Orlovskaja (f)).
- If the personal name ends with a consonant (but not in -er), substantival epithets are formed by adding -i- (stem augmentation) plus the genitive inflection appropriate to the sex and number of the person(s) honoured (e.g. lecard-ii for Lecard (m), wilson-iae for Wilson (f), verlot-iorum for the Verlot brothers, braun-iarum for the Braun sisters, mason-iorum for Mason, father and daughter).
- If the personal name ends with a vowel, adjectival epithets are formed by adding -an- plus the nominative singular inflection appropriate to the gender of the generic name (e.g. Cyperus heyne-anus for Heyne, Vanda lindley-ana for Lindley, Aspidium bertero-anum for Bertero), except when the personal name ends with -a in which case -n- plus the appropriate inflection is added (e.g. balansa-nus (m), balansa-na (f), and balansa-num (n) for Balansa).
- If the personal name ends with a consonant, adjectival epithets are formed by adding -i- (stem augmentation) plus -an- (stem of adjectival suffix) plus the nominative singular inflection appropriate to the gender of the generic name (e.g. Rosa webb-iana for Webb, Desmodium griffith-ianum for Griffith, Verbena hassler-iana for Hassler).
- Personal names already in Greek or Latin, or possessing a well-established latinized form, should be given their appropriate Latin genitive to form new substantival epithets (e.g. alexandri from Alexander or Alexandre, augusti from Augustus or August or Auguste, martini from Martinus or Martin, linnaei from Linnaeus, martii from Martius, wislizeni from Wislizenus, edithae from Editha or Edith, elisabethae from Elisabetha or Elisabeth, murielae from Muriela or Muriel, conceptionis from Conceptio or Concepción, beatricis from Beatrix or Béatrice, hectoris from Hector; but not “cami” from Edmond Gustave Camus or Aimée Camus). Treating modern family names, i.e. ones that do not have a well-established latinized form, as if they were in third declension should be avoided (e.g. munronis from Munro, richardsonis from Richardson).
- New epithets based on personal names that have a well-established latinized form should maintain the traditional use of that latinized form.
- In addition to the epithets in Rec. 60C.2, the following epithets commemorate personal names already in Latin or possessing a well-established latinized form: (a) second declension: afzelii based on Afzelius; allemanii based on Allemanius (Freire Allemão); bauhini based on Bauhinus (Bauhin); clusii based on Clusius; rumphii based on Rumphius (Rumpf); solandri based on Solandrus (Solander); (b) third declension: bellonis based on Bello; brunonis based on Bruno (Robert Brown); chamissonis based on Chamisso; (c) adjectives (see Art. 23.5): afzelianus, clusianus, linnaeanus, martianus, rumphianus, brunonianus, and chamissonianus.
- In forming new epithets based on personal names the customary spelling of the personal name should not be modified unless it contains letters, ligatures, or diacritical signs that must be transcribed under Art. 60.4 and 60.6.
- In forming new epithets based on personal names prefixes and particles should be treated as follows:
- The Scottish patronymic prefix “Mac”, “Mc”, or “M’”, meaning “son of”, should be spelled “mac” and united with the rest of the name (e.g. macfadyenii after Macfadyen, macgillivrayi after MacGillivray, macnabii after McNab, mackenii after M’Ken).
- The Irish patronymic prefix “O” should be united with the rest of the name (Art. 60.10) or omitted (e.g. obrienii, brienianus after O’Brien, okellyi after O’Kelly).
- A prefix consisting of an article (e.g. le, la, l’, les, el, il, lo), or containing an article (e.g. du, de la, des, del, della), should be united to the name (e.g. leclercii after Le Clerc, dubuyssonii after DuBuysson, lafarinae after La Farina, logatoi after Lo Gato).
- A prefix to a family name indicating ennoblement or canonization should be omitted (e.g. candollei after de Candolle, jussieui after de Jussieu, hilairei after Saint-Hilaire, remyi after St Rémy); in geographical epithets, however, “St” should be rendered as sanctus (m) or sancta (f) (e.g. sancti-johannis, of St John, sanctae-helenae, of St Helena).
- A German or Dutch prefix should be omitted (e.g. iheringii after von Ihering, martii after von Martius, steenisii after van Steenis, strassenii after zu Strassen, vechtii after van der Vecht), but when it is normally treated as part of the family name it should be included in the epithet (e.g. vonhausenii after Vonhausen, vanderhoekii after Vanderhoek, vanbruntiae after Van Brunt).
- An epithet derived from a geographical name is preferably an adjective and usually takes the termination ensis, (a)nus, inus, or icus.
- The epithet in a name of a new taxon or replacement name should be written in conformity with the customary spelling of the word or words from which it is derived and in accordance with the accepted usage of Latin and latinization (see also Art. 23.5).
- A name or epithet that combines elements derived from two or more Greek or Latin words should be formed, as far as practicable, in accordance with classical usage. This may be stated as follows (see also Rec. 60G Note 1):
- In a regular compound, a noun or adjective in non-final position appears as a compounding form generally obtained by
- The epithet meaning “having leaves like those of Quercus” is quercifolia (Querc-, connecting vowel -i-, and ending -folia).
- The epithet “aquilegifolia”, derived from the name Aquilegia must, under Art. 60.8, be changed to aquilegiifolia (Aquilegi-, connecting vowel -i-, and ending -folia).
- Exceptions to the procedure outlined in (a) are common, and one should review earlier usages of a particular compounding form. In forming apparently irregular compounds, classical usage is commonly followed.
- The compounding forms hydro- and hydr- (Hydro-phyllum) stem from water (hydor, hydatos); calli- (Calli-stemon) derives from the adjective beautiful (kalos); and meli- (Meli-osma, Meli-lotus) stems from honey (mel, melitos).
- In a pseudocompound, a noun or adjective in a non-final position appears as a word with a case ending, not as a modified stem. Examples are: nidus-avis (nest of bird), Myos-otis (mouse ear), albo-marginatus (white-margined), etc. In epithets where tingeing is expressed, the modifying initial colour often is in the ablative because the preposition e, ex, is implicit, e.g. atropurpureus (blackish purple) from “ex atro purpureus” (purple tinged with black). Other pseudocompounds have been deliberately introduced to reveal etymological differences when different word elements result in the same regular compound (see also Art. 60.8).
- The Latin words for tube (tubus, tubi) and for trumpet (tuba, tubae), in regular compounds, result in identical epithets (e.g. tubiformis), whereas the pseudocompound tubaeformis can only mean trumpet-formed, as in Cantharellus tubaeformis Fr. : Fr.
- Regular compounds derived from papaya (Carica, Caricae) and sedge (Carex, Caricis) are identical, whereas the pseudocompound caricaefolius can only mean papaya-leaved.
- Unless it serves to make an etymological distinction, the use, in a pseudocompound adjectival epithet, of the genitive singular of Latin first-declension nouns is treated as an error to be corrected (Art. 60.8).
- The epithet “aquilegiaefolia” must, under Art. 60.8, be changed to aquilegiifolia (Aquilegi-, connecting vowel -i-, and ending folia).