Preamble Pre.1-Pre.6

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

INTERNATIONAL CODE OF BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE
 
 

                                               PREAMBLE
 

1.  Botany requires a precise and simple system of nomenclature used by bota-
nists in all countries, dealing on the one hand with the terms which denote the
ranks of taxonomic groups or units, and on the other hand with the scientific
names which are applied to the individual taxonomic groups of plants. The
purpose of giving a name to a taxonomic group is not to indicate its characters
or history, but to supply a means of referring to it and to indicate its taxonomic
rank. This Code aims at the provision of a stable method of naming taxo-
nomic groups, avoiding and rejecting the use of names which may cause error
or ambiguity or throw science into confusion. Next in importance is the avoid-
ance of the useless creation of names. Other considerations, such as absolute
grammatical correctness, regularity or euphony of names, more or less pre-
vailing custom, regard for persons, etc., notwithstanding their undeniable
importance, are relatively accessory.

2.  The Principles form the basis of the system of botanical nomenclature.

3.  The detailed Provisions are divided into Rules, set out in the Articles, and
Recommendations. Examples (Ex.) are added to the rules and recommenda-
tions to illustrate them.

4.  The object of the Rules is to put the nomenclature of the past into order
and to provide for that of the future; names contrary to a rule cannot be main-
tained.

5.  The Recommendations deal with subsidiary points, their object being to
bring about greater uniformity and clearness, especially in future nomencla-
ture; names contrary to a recommendation cannot, on that account, be re-
jected, but they are not examples to be followed.

6.  The provisions regulating the modification of this Code form its last divi-
sion.

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Pre.7-Pre.10 Preamble

7.  The rules and recommendations apply to all organisms treated as plants
(including fungi and blue-green algae but excluding other prokaryotic
groups¹
), whether fossil or non-fossil². Special provisions are needed for cer-
tain groups of plants: The International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated
Plants-1980 was adopted by the International Commission for the Nomencla-
ture of Cultivated Plants; provisions for the names of hybrids appear in Ap-
pendix I.

8.  The only proper reasons for changing a name are either a more profound
knowledge of the facts resulting from adequate taxonomic study or the neces-
sity of giving up a nomenclature that is contrary to the rules.

9.  In the absence of a relevant rule or where the consequences of rules are
doubtful, established custom is followed.

10.  This edition of the Code supersedes all previous editions.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

—————

1)   For the nomenclature of other prokaryotic groups, see the International Code of Nomencla-
       ture of Bacteria.

2)   In this Code, the term "fossil" is applied to a taxon when its name is based on a fossil type and
       the term "non-fossil" is applied to a taxon when its name is based on a non-fossil type (see Art.
       13.3).

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Principles I-VI

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

DIVISION I. PRINCIPLES
 
 

Principle I

Botanical nomenclature is independent of zoological nomenclature.

The Code applies equally to names of taxonomic groups treated as plants
whether or not these groups were originally so treated (see Pre. 7).

Principle II

The application of names of taxonomic groups is determined by means
of nomenclatural types.

Principle III

The nomenclature of a taxonomic group is based upon priority of publication.

Principle IV

Each taxonomic group with a particular circumscription, position, and rank
can bear only one correct name, the earliest that is in accordance with the
Rules, except in specified cases.

Principle V

Scientific names of taxonomic groups are treated as Latin regardless of their
derivation.

Principle VI

The Rules of nomenclature are retroactive unless expressly limited.
 

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1-3 Ranks

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

DIVISION II. RULES AND RECOMMENDATIONS
 
 

CHAPTER I. RANKS OF TAXA,

AND THE TERMS DENOTING THEM
 
 

Article 1

1.1.  Taxonomic groups of any rank will, in this Code, be referred to as taxa
(singular: taxon).

Article 2

2.1.  Every individual plant is treated as belonging to a number of taxa of con-
secutively subordinate rank, among which the rank of species (species) is basal.

Article 3

3.1.  The principal ranks of taxa in ascending sequence are: species (species),
genus (genus), family (familia), order (ordo), class (classis), division (divisio),
and kingdom (regnum). Thus, except for some fossil plants (see Art. 3.2), each
species is assignable to a genus, each genus to a family, etc.

3.2.  The principal ranks of nothotaxa (hybrid taxa) are nothospecies and
nothogenus. These are the same rank as species and genus, only the terms
denoting the ranks differing in order to indicate the hybrid character (see
Appendix I).

3.3.  Because of the fragmentary nature of the specimens on which the species
of some fossil plants are based, the genera to which they are assigned are not
assignable to a family, although they may be referable to a taxon of higher
rank. Such genera are known as form-genera (forma-genera).

Ex. 1.  Form-genera: Dadoxylon Endl. (Coniferopsida), Pecopteris (Brongn.) Sternb. (Pteropsida),
Stigmaria Brongn. (Lepidodendrales), Spermatites Miner (seed-bearing plants).

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Ranks 4-5

Ex. 2.  The following are, however, not form-genera: Lepidocarpon D. Scott (Lepidocarpaceae),
Macrocarpon M. Benson (Sigilariaceae), Siltaria Traverse (Fagaceae).

Note 1.  Art. 59 provides for form-taxa for asexual forms (anamorphs) of certain pleomorphic
fungi at any rank.

3.4.  As in the case of certain pleomorphic fungi, the provisions of this Code do
not prevent the publication and use of names of form-genera of fossils.

Article 4

4.1.  If a greater number of ranks of taxa is required, the terms for these are
made either by adding the prefix sub- to the terms denoting the ranks or by the
introduction of supplementary terms. A plant may thus be assigned to taxa of
the following ranks (in descending sequence): regnum, subregnum, divisio,
subdivisio, classis, subclassis, ordo, subordo, familia, subfamilia, tribus, subtribus,
genus, subgenus, sectio, subsectio, series, subseries, species, subspecies, varietas,
subvarietas, forma, subforma
.

4.2.  Further supplementary ranks may be intercalated or added, provided that
confusion or error is not thereby introduced.

4.3.  The subordinate ranks of nothotaxa are the same as the subordinate ranks
of non-hybrid taxa, except that nothogenus is the highest rank permitted (see
Appendix I).

Note 1.  Throughout this Code the phrase "subdivision of a family" refers only to taxa of a rank
between family and genus and "subdivision of a genus" refers only to taxa of a rank between genus
and species.

Note 2.  For the designation of certain variants of species in cultivation, see Art. 28 Notes 1 and 2.

Note 3.  In classifying parasites, especially fungi, authors who do not give specific, subspecific, or
varietal value to taxa characterized from a physiological standpoint but scarcely or not at all from a
morphological standpoint may distinguish within the species special forms (formae speciales)
characterized by their adaptation to different hosts, but the nomenclature of special forms is not
governed by the provisions of this Code.

Article 5

5.1.  The relative order of the ranks specified in Arts. 3 and 4 must not be
altered (see Arts. 33.4 and 33.5).

 
 
 
 
 
 

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6 Definitions

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHAPTER II. RANKS OF TAXA (GENERAL PROVISIONS)
 
 

SECTION 1. DEFINITIONS

Article 6

6.1.  Effective publication is publication in accordance with Arts. 29-31.

6.2.  Valid publication of names is publication in accordance with Arts. 32-45
or H.9 (see also Art. 75).

6.3.  A legitimate name is one that is in accordance with the rules.

6.4.  An illegitimate name is one that is designated as such in Arts. 18.3 or
63-65 (see also Art. 21 Note 1 and Art. 24 Note 1). A name which according to
this Code was illegitimate when published cannot become legitimate later
unless it is conserved or sanctioned.

6.5.  The correct name of a taxon with a particular circumscription, position,
and rank is the legitimate name which must be adopted for it under the rules
(see Art. 11).

Ex. 1.  The generic name Vexillifera Ducke (1922), based on the single species V. micranthera, is
legitimate because it is in accordance with the rules. The same is true of the generic name Dussia
Krug & Urban ex Taubert (1892), based on the single species D. martinicensis. Both generic
names are correct when the genera are thought to be separate. Harms (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni
Veg. 19: 291. 1924), however, united Vexillifera Ducke and Dussia Krug & Urban ex Taubert in a
single genus; when this treatment is accepted the latter name is the only correct one for the genus
with this particular circumscription. The legitimate name Vexillifera may therefore be correct or
incorrect according to different concepts of the taxa.

6.6.  In this Code, unless otherwise indicated, the word "name" means a name
that has been validly published, whether it is legitimate or illegitimate (see Art.
12).

6.7.  The name of a taxon below the rank of genus, consisting of the name of a
genus combined with one or two epithets, is termed a combination (see Arts
21, 23, and 24).

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Typification 7

Ex. 2.  Combinations: Gentiana lutea, Gentiana tenella var. occidentalis, Equisetum palustre var.
americanum, Equisetum palustre f. fluitans, Mouriri subg. Pericrene, Arytera sect. Mischarytera.

6.8.  Autonyms are such names as can be established automatically under Arts.
19.4, 22.2, and 26.2, whether they were formally created or not.
 

SECTION 2.  TYPIFICATION

Article 7

7.1.  The application of names of taxa of the rank of family or below is deter-
mined by means of nomenclatural types (types of names of taxa). The applica-
tion of names of taxa in the higher ranks is also determined by types when the
names are ultimately based on generic names (see Art. 10.5).

7.2.  A nomenclatural type (typus) is that element to which the name of a taxon
is permanently attached, whether as a correct name or as a synonym. The
nomenclatural type is not necessarily the most typical or representative ele-
ment of a taxon.

7.3.  A holotype is the one specimen or illustration used by the author or
designated by him as the nomenclatural type. As long as a holotype is extant, it
automatically fixes the application of the name concerned.

Note 1.  Any designation made by the original author, if definitely expressed at the time of the
original publication of the name of the taxon, is final (but see Art. 7.4). If the author included only
one element, that one must be accepted as the holotype. If a new name is based on a previously
published description of the taxon, the same considerations apply to material included by the
earlier author (see Arts. 7.14-7.16).

7.4.  If no holotype was indicated by the author of a name, or when the holo-
type has been lost or destroyed, or when the material designated as type is
found to belong to more than one taxon, a lectotype or, if permissible (Art.
7.9),
a neotype as a substitute for it may be designated. A lectotype always
takes precedence over a neotype, except as provided by Art. 7.10. An isotype,
if such exists, must be chosen as the lectotype. If no isotype exists, the lectotype
must be chosen from among the syntypes, if such exist. If neither an isotype nor
a syntype nor any of the original material¹ is extant, a neotype may be se-
lected.

——————

1)   For the purposes of this Code, "original material" includes illustrations examined by an
       author prior to publication of a name and associated by the author with the concept of the
       named taxon.

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7 Typification

7.5.  A lectotype is a specimen or illustration selected from the original mate-
rial to serve as a nomenclatural type when no holotype was indicated at the

time of publication or as long as it is missing. When two or more specimens
have been designated as types by the author of a specific or infraspecific name
(e.g. male and female, flowering and fruiting, etc.), the lectotype must be cho-
sen from among them.

7.6.  An isotype is any duplicat of the holotype; it is always a specimen.

7.7.  A syntype is any one of two or more specimens cited by the author when
no holotype was designated, or any one of two or more specimens simultane-
ously designated as types.

7.8.  A paratype is a specimen or illustration cited in the protologue that is
neither the holotype nor an isotype, nor one of the syntypes if two or more
specimens were simultaneously designated as types.

7.9.  A neotype is a specimen or illustration selected to serve as nomencla-
tural type as long as all of the material on which the name of the taxon was
based is missing (see also Art. 7.10).

7.10.  When a holotype or a previously designated lectotype has been lost or
destroyed and it can be shown that all the other original material differs taxo-
nomically from the destroyed type, a neotype may be selected to preserve the
usage established by the previous typification (see also Art. 8.5).

7.11.  A new name published as an avowed substitute (nomen novum) for an
older name is typified by the type of the older name (see Art. 33.2; but see Art.
33 Note 1).

Ex. 1.  Myrcia lucida McVaugh (1969) was published as a nomen novum for M. laevis O. Berg
(1862), an illegitimate homonym of M. laevis G. Don (1832). The type of M. lucida is therefore the
type of M. laevis O. Berg (non G. Don), namely, Spruce 3502.

7.12.  A new name formed from a previously published legitimate name (stat.
nov.
, comb. nov.) is, in all circumstances, typified by the type of the basionym
(see Art. 55.2).

Ex. 2.  Iridaea splendens (Setch. & Gardner) Papenf., I. cordata var. splendens (Setch. & Gardner)
Abbott, and Gigartina cordata var. splendens (Setch. & Gardner) Kim all have the same type as
their basionym, Iridophycus splendens Setch. & Gardner, namely, Gardner 7781 (UC 539565).

——————

1)   Here and elsewhere, the word duplicate is given its usual meaning in herbarium curatorial
       practice. It is part of a single gathering made by a collector at one time. However, the possi-
       bility of a mixed gathering must always be considered by an author choosing a lectotype, and
       corresponding caution used.

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Typification 7

7.13.  A name which was nomenclaturally superfluous when published (see Art.
63) is automatically typified by the type of the name which ought to have been
adopted under the rules, unless the author of the superfluous name has defi-
nitely indicated a different type. Automatic typification does not apply to
names sanctioned under Art. 13.1(d).

7.14.  The type of a name of a taxon assigned to a group with a nomenclatural
starting-point later than 1753 (see Art. 13) is to be determined in accordance
with the indication or description and other matter accompanying its valid
publication (see Arts. 32-45).

7.15.  When valid publication is by reference to a pre-starting-point descrip-
tion, the latter must be used for purposes of typification.

7.16.  A name validly published by reference to a previously and effectively
published description or diagnosis (Art. 32.3) is to be typified by an element
selected from the context of the validating description or diagnosis, unless the
validating author has definitely designated a different type.

Ex. 3.  Since the name Adenanthera bicolor Moon (1824) is validated solely by reference to Rum-
phius, Herbarium Amboinense 3: t. 112, the type of the name, in the absence of the specimen from
which it was figured, is the illustration referred to. It is not the specimen, at Kew, collected by
Moon and labelled "Adenanthera bicolor", since Moon did not definitely designate the latter as
the type
.

Ex. 4.  Echium lycopsis L. (Fl. Angl. 12. 1754) was published without a description but with refer-
ence to Ray (Syn. Meth. Stirp. Brit. ed. 3. 227. 1724), in which a "Lycopsis" species was discussed
with citation of earlier references, including Bauhin (Pinax 255. 1623), but also with no description.
The accepted validating description of E. lycopsis is that of Bauhin, and the type must be chosen
from the context of his work. Consequently the Sherard specimen in the Morison herbarium
(OXF), selected by Klotz (Wiss. Z. Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle-Wittenberg Math.-Naturwiss.
Reihe 9: 375-376. 1960), although probably consulted by Ray, is not eligible as type. The first
acceptable choice is that of the illustration, cited by both Ray and Bauhin, of "Echii altera species"
in Dodonaeus (Stirp. Hist. Pempt. 620. 1583), suggested by P. E. Gibbs (Lagascalia 1: 60-61. 1971)
and formally made by W. T. Stearn (Ray Soc. Publ. 149, Introd. 65. 1973).

7.17.  A change of the listed type of a conserved generic name (see Art. 14 and
App. III) can be effected only by a procedure similar to that adopted for the
conservation of generic names.

Ex. 5.  Bullock and Killick (Taxon 6: 239. 1957) published a proposal that the type of Plectran-
thus
L’Hér. be changed from P. punctatus (L.f.) L’Hér. to P. fruticosus L’Hér. This proposal was
approved by the appropriate Committees and by an International Botanical Congress.

7.18.  The type of the name of a taxon of fossil plants of the rank of species or
below is the specimen whose figure accompanies or is cited in the valid publi-
cation of the name (see Art. 38). If figures of more than one specimen were
given or cited when the name was validly published, one of those specimens
must be chosen as the type.

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7 Typification

7.19.  The typification of names of form-genera of plant fossils (Art. 3.3), of
fungal anamorphs (Art. 59), and of any other analogous genera or lower taxa
does not differ from that indicated above.

Note 2.  See also Art. 59 for details regarding typification of names in certain pleomorphic fungi.

7.20.  Typification of names adopted in one of the works specified in Art.
13.1(d), and thereby sanctioned, may be effected in the light of anything asso-
ciated with the name in that work.

7.21.  The type of an autonym is the same as that of the name from which it is
derived.

Recommendation 7A

7A.1.  It is strongly recommended that the material on which the name of a taxon is based, espe-
cially the holotype, be deposited in a public herbarium or other public collection and that it be
scrupulously conserved.

Recommendation 7B

7B.1.  If no holotype was indicated by the original author and if no syntypes are extant, the lecto-
type should be chosen from among duplicates of the syntypes (isosyntypes), if such exist. If neither
an isotype, nor a syntype, nor an isosyntype is extant, a paratype, if such exists, may be chosen as
lectotype.

7B.2.  Typification of names for which no holotype was designated should only be carried out with
an understanding of the author’s method of working; in particular it should be realized that some
of the material used by the author in describing the taxon may not be in the author’s own her-
barium or may not even have survived, and conversely, that not all the material surviving in the
author’s herbarium was necessarily used in describing the taxon.

7B.3.  Designation of a lectotype should be undertaken only in the light of an understanding of the
group concerned. In choosing a lectotype, all aspects of the protologue should be considered as a
basic guide. Mechanical methods, such as the automatic selection of the first species or specimen
cited or of a specimen collected by the person after whom a species is named, should be avoided as
unscientific and productive of possible future confusion and further changes.

7B.4.  In choosing a lectotype, any indication of intent by the author of a name should be given
preference unless such indication is contrary to the protologue. Such indications are manuscript
notes, annotations on herbarium sheets, recognizable figures, and epithets such as typicus, genui-
nus, etc.

7B.5.  In cases where two or more heterogeneous elements were included in or cited with the
original description, the lectotype should be so selected as to preserve current usage. In particular,
if another author has already segregated one or more elements as other taxa, the residue or part of
it should be designated as the lectotype provided that this element is not in conflict with the
original description or diagnosis (see Art. 8.1).

7B.6.  For the name of a fossil species, the lectotype, when one is needed, should, if possible, be a
specimen illustrated at the time of the valid publication of the name (Art. 7.18).

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Typification 8

7B.7.  When a combination in a rank of subdivision of a genus has been published under a generic
name that has not yet been typified, the lectotype of the generic name should be selected from the
subdivision of the genus that was designated as nomenclaturally typical, if that is apparent.

Recommendation 7C

7C.1.  In selecting a neotype particular care and critical knowledge should be exercised, because
the reviewer usually has no guide except personal judgement as to what best fits the protologue,
and if this selection proves to be faulty, it will inevitably result in further change.

Article 8

8.1.  The author who first designates a lectotype or a neotype must be followed,
but his choice is superseded if (a) the holotype or, in the case of a neotype, any
of the original material is rediscovered; it may also be superseded if (b) it can
be shown that it is in serious conflict with the protologue¹ and another ele-
ment is available which is not in conflict with the protologue, or (c) that it was
based on a largely mechanical method of selection, or (d) that it is contrary to
Art. 9.2.

Ex. 1.  Authors following the American Code of Botanical Nomenclature, Canon 15 (Bull. Torrey
Bot. Club 34: 172. 1907), designated as the type "the first binomial species in order" eligible under
certain provisions. This method of selection has been considered to be largely mechanical. Thus
the first lectotypification of Delphinium L., by Britton (in Britton & Brown, Ill. Fl. N. U.S. ed. 2, 2:
93. 1913), who followed the American Code and chose D. consolida L., has been superseded by
the choice of D. peregrinum L. by Hitchcock & Green (Nomencl. Prop. Brit. Botanists 162. 1929).
As Linnaeus described Delphinium as having "germina tria vel unum", the unicarpellate D. conso-
lida
is not in "serious conflict with the protologue". It could not otherwise be displaced as the type,
even though the tricarpellate D. peregrinum would seem a better choice for the type of the name
of
a genus assigned by its author to "Polyandria Trigynia".

8.2.  For purposes of priority under Art. 8.1, designation of a type is achieved
only by effective publication (Arts. 29-31).

8.3.  For purposes of priority under Art. 8.1, designation of a type is achieved
only if the type is definitely accepted as such by the typifying author, and if the
type element is clearly indicated by direct citation including the term "type" or
an equivalent.

Ex. 2.  The phrase "standard species" as used by Hitchcock & Green (Nomencl. Prop. Brit. Bota-
nists 110-199. 1929) and by the same authors in the Cambridge Rules (1935) (in which it is subor-
dinate to the words "species lectotypicae propositae") is now regarded as equivalent to "type", and
hence lectotypifications in these works are acceptable.

——————

1)   Protologue (from the Greek protos, first; logos, discourse): everything associated with a
       name at its valid publication, i.e., diagnosis, description, illustrations, references, synonymy,
       geographical data, citation of specimens, discussion, and comments.

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9 Typification

Ex. 3.  When originally described, Stapelia L. included two species, S. variegata and S. hirsuta.
Haworth (Syn. Pl. Succ. 19, 40. 1812) transferred the former to his new genus Orbea, retaining the
latter in Stapelia. As he did not use the term "type" or an equivalent, his action does not constitute
lectotypification under Art. 8.1. The first lectotypification of Stapelia acceptable under Art. 8.1
appears to be that by Hitchcock & Green (Nomencl. Prop. Brit. Botanists 137. 1929), who chose S.
variegata
.

8.4.  On or after 1 Jan. 1990, lectotypification or neotypification of a name of a
species or infraspecific taxon by a specimen or unpublished illustration is not
effected unless the herbarium or institution in which the type is conserved is
specified.

8.5.  A neotype selected under Art. 7.10 may be superseded if it can be shown
to differ taxonomically from the holotype or lectotype that it replaced.

Article 9

9.1.  The type (holotype, lectotype, or neotype) of a name of a species or infra-
specific taxon is a single specimen or illustration except in the following case:
for small herbaceous plants and for most non-vascular plants, the type may
consist of more than one individual, which ought to be conserved permanently
on one herbarium sheet or in one equivalent preparation (e.g., box, packet, jar,
microscope slide).

9.2.  If it is later proved that such a type herbarium sheet or preparation con-
tains parts belonging to more than one taxon (Art. 7.4), the name must remain
attached to that part (lectotype) which corresponds most nearly with the origi-
nal description.

Ex. 1.  The holotype of the name Rheedia kappleri Eyma, which applies to a polygamous species, is
a male specimen collected by Kappler (593a in U). The author designated a hermaphroditic speci-
men collected by the Forestry Service of Surinam as a paratype (B. W. 1618 in U).

Ex. 2.  The type of the name Tillandsia bryoides Griseb. ex Baker (1878) is Lorentz 128 in BM;
this, however, proved to be a mixture. L. B. Smith (Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 70: 192. 1935) acted in
accordance with this rule in designating one part of Lorentz’s gathering as the lectotype.

9.3.  If it is impossible to preserve a specimen as the type of a name of a spe-
cies or infraspecific taxon of non-fossil plants, or if such a name is without a
type specimen, the type may be an illustration.

9.4.  One whole specimen used in establishing a taxon of fossil plants is to be
considered the nomenclatural type. If this specimen is cut into pieces (sections
of fossil wood, pieces of coal-ball plants, etc.), all parts originally used in estab-
lishing the diagnosis ought to be clearly marked.

9.5.  Type specimens of names of taxa must be preserved permanently and
cannot be living plants or cultures.

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Typification 10

Recommendation 9A

9A.1.  Whenever practicable a living culture should be prepared from the holotype material of the
name of a newly described taxon of fungi or algae and deposited in a reputable culture collection.
(Such action does not obviate the requirement for a holotype specimen under Art. 9.5.).

Article 10

10.1.  The type of a name of a genus or of any subdivision of a genus is the type
of a name of a species (except as provided by Art. 10.3). For purposes of
designation or citation of a type, the species name alone suffices, i.e., it is
considered as the fuIl equivalent of its type.

10.2.  If in the protologue of the name of a genus or of any subdivision of a
genus reference is made to the name(s) of one or more definitely included
species, the type must be chosen from among the types of these names. If such
a
reference is lacking, a type must be otherwise chosen, but the choice is to be
superseded if it can be demonstrated that the selected type is not conspecific
with any of the material associated with the protologue.

10.3.  By conservation (Art. 14.8), the type of the name of a genus can be a
specimen or illustration used by the author in the preparation of the proto-
logue, other than the type of a name of an included species.

Ex. 1.  The General Committee has approved conservation of Physconia Poelt with the specimen
"Germania, Lipsia in Tilia, 1767, Schreber sub "Lichen pulverulentus" (M)." as the type.

10.4.  The type of a name of a family or of any subdivision of a family is the
same as that of the generic name on which it is based (see Art. 18.1). For
purposes of designation or citation of a type, the generic name alone suffices.
The type of a name of a family or subfamily not based on a generic name is the
same as that of the corresponding alternative name (Arts. 18.5 and 19.8).

10.5.  The principle of typification does not apply to names of taxa above the
rank of family, except for names that are automatically typified by being based
on generic names (see Art. 16). The type of such a name is the same as that of
the generic name on which it is based.

Note 1.  For the typification of some names of subdivisions of genera see Art. 22.

Recommendation 10A

10A.1.  If the element selected under Art. 10.3 is the type of a species name, that name may be
cited as the type of the generic name. If the element selected is not the type of a species name the
type element should be cited and, optionally, a parenthetical reference to its correct name may be
given.

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11-13 Priority

SECTION 3.   PRIORITY

Article 11

11.1.  Each family or taxon of lower rank with a particular circumscription,
position, and rank can bear only one correct name, special exceptions being
made for 9 families and 1 subfamily for which alternative names are permitted
(see Arts. 18.5 and 19.7). However, the use of separate names for the form-
taxa of fungi and for form-genera of fossil plants is allowed under Arts. 3.3 and
59.5.

11.2.  For any taxon from family to genus inclusive, the correct name is the
earliest legitimate one with the same rank, except in cases of limitation of
priority by conservation (see Art. 14) or where Arts. 13.1(d), 19.3, 58, or 59
apply.

11.3.  For any taxon below the rank of genus, the correct name is the combina-
tion of the final epithet¹ of the earliest legitimate name of the taxon in the
same rank, with the correct name of the genus or species to which it is as-
signed, except (a) in cases of limitation of priority under Arts. 13.1(d) and 14,
or (b) if the resulting combination would be invalid under Art. 32.1(b) or ille-
gitimate under Art. 64, or (c) if Arts. 22.1, 26.1, 58, or 59 rule that a different
combination is to be used.

11.4.  The principle of priority is not mandatory for names of taxa above the
rank of family (but see Rec. 16B).

Article 12

12.1.  A name of a taxon has no status under this Code unless it is validly pub-
lished (see Arts. 32-45).

SECTION 4.   LIMITATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF PRIORITY

Article 13

13.1.  Valid publication of names for plants of the different groups is treated as
beginning at the following dates (for each group a work is mentioned which is
treated as having been published on the date given for that group):

——————

1)   Here and elsewhere in this Code, the phrase "final epithet" refers to the last epithet in
       sequence in any particular combination, whether that of a subdivision of a genus, or of a
       species, or of an infraspecific taxon.

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Starting points 13

Non-fossil plants:

(a)  Spermatophyta and Pteridophyta, 1 May 1753 (Linnaeus, Species
       Plantarum ed. 1).

(b)  Musci (the Sphagnaceae excepted), 1 Jan. 1801 (Hedwig, Species Mus-
       corum).

(c)  Sphagnaceae and Hepaticae, 1 May 1753 (Linnaeus, Species Planta-
       rum ed. 1).

(d)  Fungi (including Myxomycetes and lichen-forming fungi), 1 May 1753
       (Linnaeus, Species Plantarum ed. 1). Names in the Uredinales, Ustilagi-
       nales, and Gasteromycetes adopted by Persoon (Synopsis Methodica
       Fungorum, 31 Dec. 1801) and names of other fungi (excluding Myxo-
       mycetes) adopted by Fries (Systema Mycologicum, vols. 1 (1 Jan. 1821) to
       3, with additional Index (1832), and Elenchus Fungorum, vols. 1-2), are
       sanctioned, i.e., are treated as if conserved against earlier homonyms and
       competing synonyms. For nomenclatural purposes names given to lichens
       shall be considered as applying to their fungal component.

(e)  Algae, 1 May 1753 (Linnaeus, Species Plantarum ed. 1). Exceptions:

       Nostocaceae homocysteae, 1 Jan. 1892 (Gomont, Monographie des
       Oscillariées, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. ser. 7, 15: 263-368; 16: 91-264). The two
       parts of Gomont’s "Monographie", which appeared in 1892 and 1893 res-
       pectively, are treated as having been published simultaneously on 1 Jan.
       1892.

       Nostocaceae heterocysteae, 1 Jan. 1886 (Bornet & Flahault, Révi-
       sion des Nostocacées hétérocystées, Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. ser. 7, 3: 323-381;
       4: 343-373; 5: 51-129; 7: 177-262). The four parts of the "Révision", which
       appeared in 1886, 1886, 1887, and 1888 respectively, are treated as having
       been published simultaneously on 1 Jan. 1886.

       Desmidiaceae, 1 Jan. 1848 (Ralfs, British Desmidieae).

       Oedogoniaceae, 1 Jan. 1900 (Hirn, Monographie und Iconographie der
       Oedogoniaceen, Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 27(1)).

Fossil plants:

(f)   All groups, 31 Dec. 1820 (Sternberg, Flora der Vorwelt, Versuch 1:
       1-24. t. 1-13). Schlotheim, Petrefactenkunde, 1820, is regarded as pub-
       lished before 31 Dec. 1820.

13.2.  The group to which a name is assigned for the purposes of this Article is
determined by the accepted taxonomic position of the type of the name.

Ex. 1.  The genus Porella and its single species, P. pinnata, were referred by Linnaeus (1753) to the
Musci; if the type specimen of P. pinnata is accepted as belonging to the Hepaticae, the names
were validly published in 1753.

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14 Conservation

Ex. 2.  The lectotype of Lycopodium L. (1753) is L. clavatum L (1753) and the type specimen of
this is currently accepted as a pteridophyte. Accordingly, although the genus is listed by Linnaeus
among the Musci, the generic name and the names of the pteridophyte species included by Lin-
naeus under it were validly published in 1753.

13.3.  For nomenclatural purposes, a name is treated as pertaining to a non-
fossil taxon unless its type is fossil in origin. Fossil material is distinguished
from non-fossil material by stratigraphic relations at the site of original occur-
rence. In cases of doubtful stratigraphic relations, provisions for non-fossil
taxa apply.

13.4.  Generic names which first appear in Linnaeus’ Species Plantarum ed. 1
(1753) and ed. 2 (1762-63) are associated with the first subsequent description
given under those names in Linnaeus’ Genera Plantarum ed. 5 (1754) and ed. 6
(1764) (see Art. 41). The spelling of the generic names included in the Spe-
cies Plantarum ed. 1 is not to be altered because a different spelling has been
used in the Genera Plantarum ed. 5.

13.5.  The two volumes of Linnaeus’ Species Plantarum ed. 1 (1753), which
appeared in May and August, 1753, respectively, are treated as having been
published simultaneously on the former date (1 May 1753).

Ex. 2.  The generic names Thea L Sp. Pl. 515 (May 1753) and Camellia L Sp. Pl. 698 (Aug. 1753),
Gen. Pl. ed. 5. 311 (1754) are treated as having been published simultaneously in May 1753. Under
Art. 57 the combined genus bears the name Camellia, since Sweet (Hort. Suburb. Lond. 157.
1818), who was the first to unite the two genera, chose that name, citing Thea as a synonym.

13.6.  Names of anamorphs of fungi with a pleomorphic life cycle do not, ir-
respective of priority, affect the nomenclatural status of the names of the cor-
related holomorphs (see Art. 59.4).

Article 14

14.1.  In order to avoid disadvantageous changes in the nomenclature of fami-
lies, genera, and species entailed by the strict application of the rules, and
especially of the principle of priority in starting from the dates given in Art. 13,
this Code provides, in Appendices II and III, lists of names that are conserved
(nomina conservanda) and must be retained as useful exceptions.

Note 1.  The rules on conserved names also apply to names at any rank sanctioned under Art.
13.1(d).

14.2.  Conservation aims at retention of those names which best serve stability
of nomenclature (see Rec. 50E). Conservation of specific names is restricted to
species of major economic importance and to cases provided for by Arts. 14.3
and 69.3 (see also Art. 13.1(d)).

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Conservation 14

14.3.  The application of both conserved and rejected names is determined by
nomenclatural types. When typification of the species name cited as the type
of a conserved generic name is in dispute, the type of the specific name may be
conserved, and listed in Appendix IIIA, so that the application of the generic
name is not in doubt.

14.4.  A conserved name of a family or genus is conserved against all other
names in the same rank based on the same type (nomenclatural synonyms,
which are to be rejected) whether these are cited in the corresponding list of
rejected names or not, and against those names based on different types (taxo-
nomic synonyms) that are cited in that list¹. A conserved name of a species is
conserved against all names listed as rejected, and against all combinations
based on the rejected names.

14.5.  When a conserved name competes with one or more other names based
on different types and against which it is not explicitly conserved, the earliest
of the competing names is adopted in accordance with Art. 57.1, except for
names sanctioned under Art. 13.1(d) and for some conserved family names
(Appendix IIB), which are conserved against unlisted names.

Ex. 1.  If the genus Weihea Sprengel (1825) is united with Cassipourea Aublet (1775), the com-
bined genus will bear the prior name Cassipourea, although Weihea is conserved and Cassipourea
is not.

Ex. 2.  If Mahonia Nutt. (1818) is united with Berberis L. (1753), the combined genus will bear the
prior name Berberis, although Mahonia is conserved.

Ex. 3.  Nasturtium R. Br. (1812) was conserved only against the homonym Nasturtium Miller
(1754) and the nomenclatural synonym Cardaminum Moench (1794); consequently if reunited with
Rorippa Scop. (1760) it must bear the name Rorippa.

14.6.  When a name of a taxon has been conserved against an earlier name
based on a different type, the latter is to be restored, subject to Art. 11, if it is
considered the name of a taxon at the same rank distinct from that of the no-
men conservandum except when the earlier rejected name is a homonym of the
conserved name.

Ex. 4.  The generic name Luzuriaga Ruiz & Pavón (1802) is conserved against the earlier names
Enargea Banks & Sol. ex Gaertner (1788) and Callixene Comm. ex A. L. Juss. (1789). If, however,
Enargea Banks & Sol. ex Gaertner is considered to be a separate genus, the name Enargea is
retained for it.

14.7.  A rejected name, or a combination based on a rejected name, may not be
restored for a taxon which includes the type of the corresponding conserved
name.

——————

1)   The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the International Code of
       Nomenclature of Bacteria use the terms "objective synonym" and "subjective synonym" for
       nomenclatural and taxonomic synonym, respectively.
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14 Conservation

Ex. 5.  Enallagma Baillon (1888) is conserved against Dendrosicus Raf. (1838), but not against
Amphitecna Miers (1868); if Enallagma and Amphitecna are united, the combined genus must
bear the name Amphitecna, although the latter is not explicitly conserved against Dendrosicus.

14.8.  A name may be conserved with a different type from that designated by
the author or determined by application of the Code (see Art. 10.3). A name

with a type so conserved (typ. cons.) is legitimate even if it would otherwise be
illegitimate under Art. 63. When a name is conserved with a type different
from that of the original author, the author of the name as conserved, with the
new type, must be cited.

Ex. 6.  Bulbostylis Kunth (1837), nom. cons. (non Bulbostylis Steven 1817). This is not to be cited as
Bulbostylis Steven emend. Kunth, since the type listed was not included in Bulbostylis by Steven
in 1817.

14.9.  A conserved name, with its corresponding autonyms, is conserved against
all earlier homonyms. An earlier homonym of a conserved or sanctioned name
is not made illegitimate by that conservation or sanctioning but is unavailable
for use; if legitimate, it may serve as basionym of another name or combination
based on the same type (see also Art.
68.3).

Ex. 7.  The generic name Smithia Aiton (1789), conserved against Damapana Adanson (1763), is
thereby conserved automatically against the earlier homonym Smithia Scop. (1777).

14.10.  A name may be conserved in order to preserve a particular orthography
or gender. A name so conserved is to be attributed without change of priority
to the author who validly published it, not to an author who later introduced
the
conserved spelling or gender.

Ex. 8.  The spelling Rhodymenia, used by Montagne (1839), has been conserved against the ori-
ginal spelling Rhodomenia, used by Greville (1830). The name is to be cited as Rhodymenia Grev.
(1830).

Note 2.  The date of conservation or sanctioning does not affect the nomenclatural status of the
conserved or sanctioned name, whose priority depends on its date of valid publication. When two
or more conserved or sanctioned names are considered to be synonyms, the first to have been
validly published has priority. When two or more homonyms are sanctioned only the earliest of
them can be used, the later being illegitimate under Art. 64.

14.11.  The lists of conserved names will remain permanently open for ad-
ditions and changes. Any proposal of an additional name must be accom-
panied by a detailed statement of the cases both for and against its conserva-
tion. Such proposals must be submitted to the General Committee (see Divi-
sion III
), which will refer them for examination to the committees for the
various taxonomic groups.

14.12.  Entries of conserved names cannot be deleted. Similarly, a name once
sanctioned remains sanctioned, even if elsewhere in the sanctioning works the
sanctioning author does not recognize it.

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Conservation 15

Article 15

15.1.  When a proposal for the conservation (or rejection under Art. 69) of a
name has been approved by the General Committee after study by the Com-
mittee for the taxonomic group concerned, retention (or rejection) of that
name is authorized subject to the decision of a later International Botanical
Congress.

Recommendation 15A

15A.1.  When a proposal for the conservation or rejection of a name has been referred to the
appropriate Committee for study, authors should follow existing usage as far as possible pending
the General Committee’s recommendation on the proposal.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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16 Higher taxa

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHAPTER III.  NOMENCLATURE OF TAXA ACCORDING TO

THEIR RANK
 
 

SECTION 1. NAMES OF TAXA ABOVE THE RANK OF FAMILY

Article 16

16.1.  Names of taxa above the rank of family are automatically typified if they
are based on generic names (see Art. 10.5); for such automatically typified
names, the name of a subdivision which includes the type of the adopted name
of a division, the name of a subclass which includes the type of the adopted
name of a class, and the name of a suborder which includes the type of the
adopted name of an order, are to be based on the generic name equivalent to
that type, but without the citation of an author’s name.

16.2.  Where one of the word elements -monado-, -cocco-, -nemato-, or -clado­
as the second part of a generic name has been omitted before the termination
-phyceae- or -phyta, the shortened class or division name is regarded as based
on the generic name in question if such derivation is obvious or is indicated at
establishment of the group name.

Ex. 1.  Raphidophyceae Chadefaud ex P. C. Silva (1980) was indicated by its author to be based on
Raphidomonas F. Stein (1878).

Note 1.  The principle of priority is not mandatory for names of taxa above the rank of family (Art.
11.4).

Recommendation 16A

16A.1.  The name of a division is taken either from distinctive characters of the division (descrip-
tive names) or from a name of an included genus; it should end in -phyta, unless it is a division of
fungi, in which case it should end in -mycota.

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Higher taxa 17

16A.2.  The name of a subdivision is formed in a similar manner; it is distinguished from a divi-
sional name by an appropriate prefix or suffix or by the termination -phytina, unless it is a subdivi-
sion of fungi, in which case it should end in -mycotina.

16A.3.  The name of a class or of a subclass is formed in a similar manner and should end as fol-
lows:

(a)  In the algae: -phyceae (class) and -phycidae (subclass);

(b)  In the fungi: -mycetes (class) and –mycetidae (subclass);

(c)  In other groups of plants: -opsida (class) and -idae (subclass).

16A.4.  When a name has been published with a Latin termination not agreeing with this recom-
mendation, the termination may be changed to accord with it, without change of author’s name or
date of publication.

Recommendation 16B

16B.1.  In choosing among typified names for a taxon above the rank of family, authors should
generally follow the principle of priority.

Article 17

17.1.  The name of an order or suborder is taken either from distinctive charac-
ters of the taxon (descriptive name) or from a legitimate name of an included
family based on a generic name (automatically typified name). An ordinal
name of the second category is formed by replacing the termination -aceae by
-ales. A subordinal name of the second category is similarly formed, with the
termination -ineae.

Ex. 1.  Descriptive names of orders: Centrospermae, Parietales, Farinosae; of a suborder: Enantio-
blastae
.

Ex. 2.  Automatically typified names: Fucales, Polygonales, Ustilaginales; Bromeliineae, Malvi-
neae
.

17.2.  Names intended as names of orders, but published with their rank de-
noted by a term such as "cohors", "nixus", "alliance", or "Reihe" instead of
"order", are treated as having been published as names of orders.

17.3.  When the name of an order or suborder based on a name of a genus has
been published with an improper Latin termination, this termination must be
changed to accord with the rule, without change of the author’s name or date
of publication.

Recommendation 17A

17A.1.  Authors should not publish new names of orders for taxa of that rank which include a
family from whose name an existing ordinal name is derived.

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18 Families

SECTION 2. NAMES OF FAMILIES AND SUBFAMILIES, TRIBES AND SUBTRIBES

Article 18

18.1.  The name of a family is a plural adjective used as a substantive; it is
formed from the genitive singular of a legitimate name of an included genus by
replacing the genitive singular inflection (Latin -ae, -i, -us, -is; transliterated
Greek -ou, -os, -es, -as, or -ous, including the latter’s equivalent -eos) with the
termination -aceae.
For generic names of non-classical origin, when analogy
with classical names is insufficient to determine the genitive singular, -aceae is
added to the full word. For generic names with alternative genitives the one
implicitly used by the original author must be maintained.

Ex. 1.  Family names based on a generic name of classical origin: Rosaceae (from Rosa, Rosae),
Salicaceae (from Salix, Salicis), Plumbaginacae (from Plumbago, Plumbaginis), Rhodophyllaceae
(from Rhodophyllus, Rhodophylli), Rhodophyllidaceae (from Rhodophyllis, Rhodophyllidos),
Sclerodermataceae (from Scleroderma, Sclerodermatos), Aextoxicaceae (from Aextoxicon, Aex-
toxicou, Potamogetonaccae (from Potamogeton, Potamogetonos).

Ex. 2.  Family names based on a generic name of non-classical origin: Nelumbonaccae (from Ne-
lumbo
, Nelumbonis, declined by analogy with umbo, umbonis), Ginkgoaceae (from Ginkgo,
indeclinable).

18.2.  Names intended as names of families, but published with their rank de-
noted by one of the terms "order" (ordo) or "natural order" (ordo naturalis)
instead of "family", are treated as having been published as names of families.

18.3.  A name of a family or subdivision of a family based on an illegitimate
generic name is illegitimate unless conserved. Contrary to Art. 32.1(b) such a
name is validly published if it complies with the other requirements for valid
publication.

Ex. 3.  Caryophyllaceae, nom. cons. (from Caryophyllus Miller non L.); Winteraceae, nom. cons.
(from Wintera Murray, an illegitimate synonym of Drimys Forster & Forster f.).

18.4.  When a name of a family has been published with an improper Latin
termination, the termination must be changed to conform with the rule, with-
out change of the author’s name or date of publication (see Art. 32.5).

Ex. 4.  "Coscinodisceae" Kütz. is to be accepted as Coscinodiscaceae Kütz. and not attributed to De
Toni, who first used the correct spelling (Notarisia 5: 915. 1890).

Ex. 5.  "Atherospermeae" R. Br. is to be accepted as Atherospermataceae R. Br. and not attributed
to Airy Shaw (in Willis, Dict. Fl. Pl. ed. 7. 104. 1966), who first used the correct spelling, or to
Lindley, who used the spelling "Atherospermaceae" (Veg. Kingd. 300. 1846).

Ex. 6.  However, Tricholomées Roze (Bull. Soc. Bot. France 23: 49. 1876) is not to be accepted as
Tricholomataceae Roze, because it has a French rather than a Latin termination. The name Tri-
cholomataceae
was later validated by Pouzar (1983; see App. II).

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Subdivisions of families 19

18.5.  The following names, sanctioned by long usage, are treated as validly
published: Palmae (Arecaceae; type, Areca L.); Gramineae (Poaceae; type, Poa
L.); Cruciferae (Brassicaceae; type, Brassica L.); Leguminosae (Fabaceae; type,
Faba Miller (= Vicia L. p.p.)); Guttiferae (Clusiaceae; type, Clusia L.); Umbel-
liferae
(Apiaceae; type, Apium L.); Labiatae (Lamiaceae; type, Lamium L.);
Compositae (Asteraceae; type, Aster L.). When the Papilionaceae (Fabaceae;
type, Faba Miller) are regarded as a family distinct from the remainder of the
Leguminosae, the name Papilionaceae is conserved against Leguminosae (see
Art. 51.2).

18.6.  The use, as alternatives, of the names indicated in parentheses in Art.
18.5 is authorized.

Article 19

19.1.  The name of a subfamily is a plural adjective used as a substantive; it is
formed in the same manner as the name of a family (Art. 18.1) but by using the
termination -oideae instead of -aceae.

19.2.  A tribe is designated in a similar manner, with the termination -eae, and a
subtribe similarly with the termination -inae.

19.3.  The name of any subdivision of a family that includes the type of the
adopted, legitimate name of the family to which it is assigned is to be based on
the generic name equivalent to that type, but not followed by an author’s name
(see Art. 46). Such names are termed autonyms (Art. 6.8; see also Art. 7.18).

Ex. 1.  The type of the family name Rosaceae A. L. Juss. is Rosa L. and hence the subfamily and
tribe which include Rosa are to be called Rosoideae and Roseae.

Ex. 2.  The type of the family name Poaceae Barnhart (nom. alt., Gramineae A. L. Juss. – see Art.
18.5) is Poa L. and hence the subfamily and tribe which include Poa are to be called Pooideae and
Poëae.

Note 1.  This provision applies only to the names of those subordinate taxa that include the type of
the adopted name of the family (but see Rec. 19A).

Ex. 3.  The subfamily including the type of the family name Ericaceae A. L. Juss. (Erica L.) is
called Ericoideae, and the tribe including this type is called Ericeae. However, the correct name of
the tribe including both Rhododendron L., the type of the subfamily name Rhododendroideae
Endl., and Rhodora L. is Rhodoreae G. Don (the oldest legitimate name), and not Rhododen-
dreae
.

Ex. 4.  The subfamily of the family Asteraceae Dumort. (nom. alt., Compositae Giseke) including
Aster L., the type of the family name, is called Asteroideae, and the tribe and subtribe including
Aster are called Astereae and Asterinae, respectively. However, the correct name of the tribe
including both Cichorium L., the type of the subfamily name Cichorioideae Kitamura, and Lactuca
L. is Lactuceae Cass., not Cichorieae, while that of the subtribe including both Cichorium and
Hyoseris L. is Hyoseridinae Less., not Cichoriinae (unless the Cichoriaceae A. L. Juss. are ac-
cepted as a family distinct from Compositae).

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20 Genera

19.4.  The first valid publication of a name of a subdivision of a family that does
not include the type of the adopted, legitimate name of the family automatical-
ly establishes the corresponding autonym (see also Arts. 32.6 and 57.3).

19.5.  The name of a subdivision of a family may not be based on the same
generic name as is the name of the family or of any subdivision of the same
family unless it has the same type as that name.

19.6.  When a name of a taxon assigned to one of the above categories has been
published with an improper Latin termination, such as -eae for a subfamily or
-oideae for a tribe, the termination must be changed to accord with the rule,
without change of the author’s name or date of publication (see Art. 32.5).

Ex. 5.  The subfamily name "Climacieae" Grout (Moss Fl. N. Amer. 3: 4. 1928) is to be changed to
Climacioideae with rank and author’s name unchanged.

19.7.  When the Papilionaceae are included in the family Leguminosae (nom.
alt., Fabaceae; see Art. 18.5) as a subfamily, the name Papilionoideae may be
used as an alternative to Faboideae.

Recommendation 19A

19A.1.  If a legitimate name is not available for a subdivision of a family which includes the type of
the correct name of another taxon of higher or lower rank (e.g., subfamily, tribe, or subtribe), but

not of the family to which it is assigned, the new name of that taxon should be based on the same
generic name as the name of the higher or lower taxon.

Ex. 1.  Three tribes of the family Ericaceae, none of which includes the type of that family name
(Erica L.), are Pyroleae D. Don, Monotropeae D. Don, and Vaccinieae D. Don. The names of the
later-described subfamilies Pyroloideae (D. Don) A. Gray, Monotropoideae (D. Don) A. Gray,
and Vaccinioideae (D. Don) Endl. are based on the same generic names.
 

SECTION 3. NAMES OF GENERA AND SUBDIVISIONS OF GENERA

Article 20

20.1.  The name of a genus is a substantive in the singular number, or a word
treated as such, and is written with a capital initial letter (see Art. 73.2). It may
be taken from any source whatever, and may even be composed in an absolute-
ly arbitrary manner.

Ex. 1.  Rosa, Convolvulus, Hedysarum, Bartramia, Liquidambar, Gloriosa, Impatiens, Rhododen-
dron, Manihot, Ifloga
(an anagram of Filago).

20.2.  The name of a genus may not coincide with a technical term currently
used in morphology unless it was published before 1 Jan. 1912 and accom-
panied by a specific name published in accordance with the binary system of
Linnaeus.

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Genera 20

Ex. 2.  The generic name Radicula Hill (1756) coincides with the technical term "radicula" (radicle)
and was not accompanied by a specific name in accordance with the binary system of Linnaeus.
The name is correctly attributed to Moench (1794), who first combined it with specific epithets,
but at that time he included in the genus the type of the generic name Rorippa Scop. (1760). Radi-
cula
Moench is therefore rejected in favour of Rorippa.

Ex. 3.  Tuber Wigg. : Fr., when published in 1780, was accompanied by a binary specific name
(Tuber gulosorum Wigg.) and is therefore validly published.

Ex. 4.  The generic names Lanceolatus Plumstead (1952) and Lobata V. J. Chapman (1952) coin-
cide with technical terms and are therefore not validly published.

Ex. 5.  Names such as Radix, Caulis, Folium, Spina, etc., cannot now be validly published as generic
names.

20.3.  The name of a genus may not consist of two words, unless these words
are joined by a hyphen.

Ex. 6.  The generic name Uva ursi Miller (1754) as originally published consisted of two separate
words unconnected by a hyphen, and is therefore rejected; the name is correctly attributed to
Duhamel (1755) as Uva-ursi (hyphened when published).

Ex. 7.  However, names such as Quisqualis (formed by combining two words into one when origi-
nally published), Sebastiano-schaueria, and Neves-armondia (both hyphenated when originally
published) are validly published.

Note 1.  The names of intergeneric hybrids are formed according to the provisions of Art. H.6.

20.4.  The following are not to be regarded as generic names:

(a)  Words not intended as names.

Ex. 8.  Anonymos Walter (Fl. Carol. 2, 4, 9, etc. 1788) is rejected as being a word applied to 28
°ifferent genera by Walter to indicate that they were without names.

Ex. 9.  Schaenoides and Scirpoides, as used by Rottbøll (Descr. Pl. Rar. Progr. 14, 27. 1772) to
indicate unnamed genera resembling Schoenus and Scirpus which he stated (on page 7) he in-
tended to name later, are token words and not generic names. Kyllinga Rottb. and Fuirena Rottb.
(1773) are the first legitimate names of these genera.

(b)  Unitary designations of species.

Ex. 10.  Ehrhart (Phytophylacium 1780, and Beitr. 4: 145-150. 1789) proposed unitary names for
various species known at that time under binary names, e.g. Phaeocephalum for Schoenus fuscus,
and Leptostachys for Carex leptostachys. These names, which resemble generic names, should not
be confused with them and are to be rejected, unless they have been published as generic names by
a subsequent author; for example, the name Baeothryon, employed as a unitary name of a species by
Ehrhart, was subsequently published as a generic name by A. Dietrich.

Ex. 11.  Necker in his Elementa Botanica, 1790, proposed unitary designations for his "species
naturales". These names, which resemble generic names, are not to be treated as such, unless they
have been published as generic names by a subsequent author; for example Anthopogon, em-
ployed by Necker for one of his "species naturales", was published as a generic name by Rafi-
nesque: Andropogon Raf. non Nutt.

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21 Subdivisions of genera

Recommendation 20A

20A.1.  Authors forming generic names should comply with the following suggestions:

(a)  To use Latin terminations insofar as possible.

(b)  To avoid names not readily adaptable to the Latin language.

(c)  Not to make names which are very long or difficult to pronounce in Latin.

(d)  Not to make names by combining words from different languages.

(e)  To indicate, if possible, by the formation or ending of the name the affinities or analogies of
       the genus.

(f)  To avoid adjectives used as nouns.

(g)  Not to use a name similar to or derived from the epithet of one of the species of the genus.

(h)  Not to dedicate genera to persons quite unconnected with botany or at least with natural
      science.

(i)  To give a feminine form to all personal generic names, whether they commemorate a man or a
      woman (see Rec. 73B).

(j)  Not to form generic names by combining parts of two existing generic names, e.g. Hordelymus
      from Hordeum and Elymus, because such names are likely to be confused with nothogeneric
       names (see Art. H.6).

Article 21

21.1.  The name of a subdivision of a genus is a combination of a generic name
and a subdivisional epithet connected by a term (subgenus, sectio, series, etc.)
denoting its rank.

21.2.  The epithet is either of the same form as a generic name, or a plural ad-
jective agreeing in gender with the generic name and written with a capital
initial letter (see Art. 32.5).

21.3.  The epithet in the name of a subdivision of a genus is not to be formed
from the name of the genus to which it belongs by adding the prefix Eu-.

Ex. 1.  Costus subg. Metacostus; Ricinocarpos sect. Anomodiscus; Sapium subsect. Patentinervia;
Valeriana
sect. Valerianopsis; Euphorbia sect. Tithymalus; Euphorbia subsect. Tenellae; Arenaria
ser. Anomalae; but not Carex sect. Eucarex.

Note 1. The use within the same genus of the same epithet in names of subdivisions of the genus,
even in different ranks, based on different types is illegitimate under Art. 64.

Note 2. The names of hybrids with the rank of a subdivision of a genus are formed according to
the provisions of Art. H.7.

Recommendation 21A

21A.1. When it is desired to indicate the name of a subdivision of the genus to which a particular
species belongs in connection with the generic name and specific epithet, its epithet should be
placed in parentheses between the two; when desirable, its rank may also be indicated.

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Subdivisions of genera 22

Ex. 1.  Astragalus (Cycloglottis) contortuplicatus; Astragalus (Phaca) umbellatus; Loranthus (sect.
Ischnanthus) gabonensis.

Recommendation 21B

21B.1. The epithet of a subgenus or section is preferably a substantive, that of a subsection or
lower subdivision of a genus preferably a plural adjective.

21B.2. Authors, when proposing new epithets for subdivisions of genera, should avoid those in the
form of a substantive when other co-ordinate subdivisions of the same genus have them in the
form of a plural adjective, and vice-versa. They should also avoid, when proposing an epithet for a
subdivision of a genus, one already used for a subdivision of a closely related genus, or one which
is identical with the name of such a genus.

Article 22

22.1.  The name of any subdivision of a genus that includes the type of the
adopted, legitimate name of the genus to which it is assigned is to repeat that
generic name unaltered as its epithet, but not followed by an author’s name
(see Art. 46). Such names are termed autonyms (Art. 6.8; see also Art. 7.21).

Note 1. This provision applies only to the names of those subordinate taxa that include the type of
the adopted name of the genus (but see Rec. 22A).

22.2.  The first valid publication of a name of a subdivision of a genus that does
not include the type of the adopted, legitimate name of the genus automatically
establishes the corresponding autonym (see also Arts. 32.6 and 57.3).

Ex. 1.  The subgenus of Malpighia L. which includes the lectotype of the generic name (M. glabra
L.) is called Malpighia subg. Malpighia, and not Malpighia subg. Homoiostylis Niedenzu.

Ex. 2.  The section of Malpighia L. including the lectotype of the generic name is called Malpighia
sect. Malpighia, and not Malpighia sect. Apyrae DC.

Ex. 3.  However, the correct name of the section of the genus Rhododendron L. which includes
Rhododendron luteum Sweet, the type of Rhododendron subg. Anthodendron (Reichenb.) Reh-
der, is Rhododendron sect. Penthanthera G. Don, the oldest legitimate name for that section, and
not Rhododendron sect. Anthodendron.

22.3.  The epithet in the name of a subdivision of a genus may not repeat un-
changed the correct name of the genus, except when the two names have the
same type.

22.4.  When the epithet of a subdivision of a genus is identical with or derived
from the epithet of one of its constituent species, the type of the name of the
subdivision of the genus is the same as that of the species name, unless the
original author of the subdivisional name designated another type.

Ex. 4.  The type of Euphorbia subg. Esula Pers. is E. esula L.; the designation of E. peplus L. as
lectotype by Croizat (Revista Sudamer. Bot. 6: 13. 1939) is rejected.

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23 Species

Ex. 5.  The type of Lobelia sect. Eutupa Wimmer is L. tupa L.

22.5.  When the epithet of a subdivision of a genus is identical with or derived
from the epithet of a specific name that is a later homonym, it is the type of
that later homonym, whose correct name necessarily has a different epithet,
that is the nomenclatural type.

Recommendation 22A

22A.1.  A section including the type of the correct name of a subgenus, but not including the type
of the correct name of the genus, should, where there is no obstacle under the rules, be given a
name with the same epithet and type as the subgeneric name.

22A.2.  A subgenus not including the type of the correct name of the genus should, where there is
no obstacle under the rules, be given a name with the same epithet and type as a name of one of its
subordinate sections.

Ex. 1.  Instead of using a new name at the subgeneric level, Brizicky raised Rhamnus sect. Pseudo-
frangula
Grubov to the rank of subgenus as Rhamnus subg. Pseudofrangula (Grubov) Briz. The
type of both names is the same, R. alnifolia L’Hér.
 

SECTION 4. NAMES OF SPECIES

Article 23

23.1.  The name of a species is a binary combination consisting of the name of
the genus followed by a single specific epithet in the form of an adjective, a
noun in the genitive, or a word in apposition, but not a phrase in the ablative
(see Art. 23.6(c)). If an epithet consists of two or more words, these are to be
united or hyphenated. An epithet not so joined when originally published is not
to be rejected but, when used, is to be united or hyphenated (see Art. 73.9).

23.2.  The epithet in the name of a species may be taken from any source what-
ever, and may even be composed arbitrarily (but see Art. 73.1).

Ex. 1.  Cornus sanguinea, Dianthus monspessulanus, Papaver rhoeas, Uromyces fabae, Fumaria
gussonei, Geranium robertianum, Embelia sarasiniorum, Atropa bella-donna, Impatiens noli-tan-
gere, Adiantum capillus-veneris, Spondias mombin
(an indeclinable epithet).

23.3.  Symbols forming part of specific epithets proposed by Linnaeus do not
invalidate the relevant names but must be transcribed.

Ex. 2.  Scandix pecten ♀ L. is to be transcribed as Scandix pecten-veneris; Veronica anagallis ∇ L.
is to be transcribed as Veronica anagallis-aquatica.

23.4.  The specific epithet may not exactly repeat the generic name with or
without the addition of a transcribed symbol (tautonym).

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Species 23

Ex. 3.  Linaria linaria, Nasturtium nasturtium-aquaticum.

23.5.  The specific epithet, when adjectival in form and not used as a substan-
tive, agrees grammatically with the generic name (see Art. 32.5).

Ex. 4.  Helleborus niger, Brassica nigra, Verbascum nigrum; Vinca major, Tropaeolum majus;
Rubus amnicola
("amnicolus"), the specific epithet being a Latin substantive; Peridermium bal-
sameum
Peck, but also Gloeosporium balsameae J. J. Davis, both derived from the epithet of
Abies balsamea, the specific epithet of which is treated as a substantive in the second example.

23.6.  The following are not to be regarded as specific epithets:

(a)  Words not intended as epithets.

Ex. 5.  Viola "qualis" Krocker (Fl. Sites. 2: 512, 517. 1790); Urtica "dubia?" Forsskål (Fl. Aegypt.-
Arab. cxxi. 1775), the word "dubia?" being repeatedly used in that work for species which could not
be reliably identified.

Ex. 6.  Atriplex "nova" Winterl (Index Horti Bot. Univ. Pest. fol. A. 8, recto et verso. 1788), the
word "nova" being here used in connection with four different species of Atriplex.

Ex. 7.  However, in Artemisia nova A. Nelson (Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 27: 274. 1900), nova was
intended as a specific epithet, the species having been newly distinguished from others.

(b)  Ordinal adjectives used for enumeration.

Ex. 8.  Boletus vicesimus sextus, Agaricus octogesimus nonus.

(c)  Epithets published in works in which the Linnaean system of binary
      nomenclature for species is not consistently employed. Linnaeus is re-
      garded as having used binary nomenclature for species consistently from
      1753 onwards, although there are exceptions, e.g. Apocynum fol. andro-
      saemi L. (Sp. Pl. 213. 1753 = Apocynum androsaemifolium L. Syst. Nat. ed.
      10: 946. 1759).

Ex. 9.  Abutilon album Hill (Brit. Herb. 49. 1756) is a descriptive phrase reduced to two words, not
a binary name in accordance with the Linnaean system, and is to be rejected: Hill’s other species
was Abutilon flore flavo.

Ex. 10.  Secretan (Mycographie Suisse. 1833) introduced a large number of new specific names,
more than half of them not binomials, e.g. Agaricus albus corticis, Boletus testaceus scaber, Bole-
tus aereus carne lutea
. He is therefore considered not to have consistently used the Linnaean
system of binary nomenclature and none of the specific names, even those with a single epithet, in
this work are validly published.

Ex. 11.  Other works in which the Linnaean system of binary nomenclature is not consistently
employed: Gilibert, Fl. Lit. Inch. 1781; Gilibert, Exerc. Phyt. 1792; Miller, Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4.
1754; W. Kramer, Elench. Veg. 1756.

(d)  Formulae designating hybrids (see Art. H.10.3).

Recommendation 23A

23A.1.  Names of men and women and also of countries and localities used as specific epithets
should be in the form of substantives in the genitive (clusii, porsildiorum, saharae) or of adjectives
(clusianus, dahuricus) (see also Art. 73, Recs. 73C and D).

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24 Infraspecific taxa

23A.2.  The use of the genitive and the adjectival form of the same word to designate two different
species of the same genus should be avoided (e.g. Lysimachia hemsleyana Oliver and L. hemsleyi
Franchet).

Recommendation 23B

23B.1.  In forming specific epithets, authors should comply also with the following suggestions:

(a)  To use Latin terminations insofar as possible.

(b)  To avoid epithets which are very long and difficult to pronounce in Latin.

(c)  Not to make epithets by combining words from different languages.

(d)  To avoid those formed of two or more hyphenated words.

(e)  To avoid those which have the same meaning as the generic name (pleonasm).

(f)  To avoid those which express a character common to all or nearly all the species of a genus.

(g)  To avoid in the same genus those which are very much alike, especially those which differ only
       in their last letters or in the arrangement of two letters.

(h)  To avoid those which have been used before in any closely allied genus.

(i)   Not to adopt epithets from unpublished names found in correspondence, travellers’ notes,
       herbarium labels, or similar sources, attributing them to their authors, unless these authors
       have approved publication.

(j)   To avoid using the names of little-known or very restricted localities, unless the species is
       quite local.

SECTION 5. NAMES OF TAXA BELOW THE RANK OF SPECIES

(INFRASPECIFIC TAXA)

Article 24

24.1.  The name of an infraspecific taxon is a combination of the name of a
species and an infraspecific epithet connected by a term denoting its rank.

Ex. 1.  Saxifraga aizoon subf. surculosa Engler & Irmscher. This can also be cited as Saxifraga
aizoon
var. aizoon subvar. brevifolia f. multicaulis subf. surculosa Engler & Irmscher; in this way a
full classification of the subforma within the species is given.

24.2.  Infraspecific epithets are formed as those of species and, when adjectival
in form and not used as substantives, they agree grammatically with the generic
name (see Art. 32.5).

Ex. 2.  Trifolium stellatum forma nanum (not nana).

24.3.  Infraspecific epithets such as typicus, originalis, originarius, genuinus,
verus,
and veridicus, purporting to indicate the taxon containing the type of the
name of the next higher taxon, are not validly published unless they repeat the
specific epithet because Art. 26 requires their use.

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Infraspecific taxa 25-26

24.4.  The use of a binary combination instead of an infraspecific epithet is not
admissible. Contrary to Art. 32.1(b), names so constructed are validly pub-
lished but are to be altered to the proper form without change of the author’s
name or date of publication.

Ex. 3.  "Salvia grandiflora subsp. S. willeana" Holmboe is to be cited as Salvia grandiflora subsp.
willeana Holmboe.

Ex. 4.  "Phyllerpa prolifera var. Ph. firma" Kütz. is to be altered to Phyllerpa prolifera var. firma
Kütz.

24.5.  Infraspecific taxa within different species may bear the same epithets;
those within one species may bear the same epithets as other species (but see
Rec. 24B).

Ex. 5.  Rosa jundzillii var. leioclada and Rosa glutinosa var. leioclada; Viola tricolor var. hirta in
spite of the previous existence of a different species named Viola hirta.

Note 1.  The use within the same species of the same epithet for infraspecific taxa, even if they are
of different rank, based on different types is illegitimate under Art. 64.3.

Recommendation 24A

24A.1.  Recommendations made for specific epithets (Recs. 23A, B) apply equally to infraspecific
epithets.

Recommendation 24B

24B.1.  Authors proposing new infraspecific epithets should avoid those previously used for
species in the same genus.

Article 25

25.1.  For nomenclatural purposes, a species or any taxon below the rank of
species is regarded as the sum of its subordinate taxa, if any. In fungi, a holo-
morph (see Art. 59.4) also includes its correlated form-taxa.

Ex. 1.  When Montia parvifolia (DC.) Greene is treated as containing two subspecies, the name M.
parvifolia
applies to the sum of these subordinate taxa. Under this taxonomic treatment, one must
write M. parvifolia (DC.) Greene subsp. parvifolia if only that part of M. parvifolia which includes
its nomenclatural type and excludes the type of the name of the other subspecies (M. parvifolia
subsp. flagellaris (Bong.) Ferris) is meant.

Article 26

26.1.  The name of any infraspecific taxon that includes the type of the
adopted, legitimate name of the species to which it is assigned is to repeat the
specific epithet unaltered as its final epithet, but not followed by an author’s
name (see Art. 46). Such names are termed autonyms (Art. 6.8; see also Art.
7.21).

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27 Infraspecific taxa

Ex. 1.  The combination Lobelia spicata var. originalis McVaugh, applying to a taxon which in-
cludes the type of the name Lobelia spicata Lam., is to be replaced by Lobelia spicata Lam. var.
spicata.

Note 1.  This provision applies only to the names of those subordinate taxa that include the type of
the adopted name of the species (but see Rec. 26A).

26.2.  The first valid publication of a name of an infraspecific taxon that does
not include the type of the adopted, legitimate name of the species automati-
cally establishes the corresponding autonym (see also Arts. 32.6 and 57.3).

Ex. 2.  The publication of the name Lycopodium inundatum var. bigelovii Tuckerman (1843)
automatically established the name of another variety, Lycopodium inundatum L. var. inundatum,
the type of which is that of the name Lycopodium inundatum L.

Ex. 3.  Utricularia stellaris L. f. (1781) includes U. stellaris var. coromandeliana A. DC. (1844) and
U. stellaris L. f. var. stellaris (1844) automatically established at the same time. When U. stellaris is
included in U. inflexa Forsskål (1775) as a variety the correct name of the variety, under Art. 57.3,
is U. inflexa var. stellaris (L. f.) P. Taylor (1961).

Recommendation 26A

26A.1.  A variety including the type of the correct name of a subspecies, but not including the type
of the correct name of the species, should, where there is no obstacle under the rules, be given a
name with the same epithet and type as the subspecies name.

26A.2.  A subspecies not including the type of the correct name of the species should, where there
is no obstacle under the rules, be given a name with the same epithet and type as a name of one of
its subordinate varieties.

26A.3.  A taxon of lower rank than variety which includes the type of the correct name of a subspe-
cies or variety, but not the type of the correct name of the species, should, where there is no
obstacle under the rules, be given a name with the same epithet and type as the name of the sub-
species or variety. On the other hand, a subspecies or variety which does not include the type of the
correct name of the species should not be given a name with the same epithet as the name of one
of its subordinate taxa below the rank of variety.

Ex. 1.  Fernald treated Stachys palustris subsp. pilosa (Nutt.) Epling as composed of five varieties,
for one of which (that including the type of S. palustris subsp. pilosa) he made the combination S.
palustris
var. pilosa (Nutt.) Fern., there being no legitimate varietal name available.

Ex. 2.  There being no legitimate name available at the rank of subspecies, Bonaparte made the
combination Pteridium aquilinum subsp. caudatum (L.) Bonap., using the same epithet that
Sadebeck had used earlier in the combination P. aquilinum var. caudatum (L.) Sadeb. (both names
based on Pteris caudata L.). Each name is legitimate, and both can be used, as by Tryon, who
treated P. aquilinum var. caudatum as one of four varieties under subsp. caudatum.

Article 27

27.1.  The final epithet in the name of an infraspecific taxon may not repeat
unchanged the epithet of the correct name of the species to which the taxon is
assigned unless the two names have the same type.

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Cultivated plants 28

SECTION 6. NAMES OF PLANTS IN CULTIVATION

Article 28

28.1.  Plants brought from the wild into cultivation retain the names that are
applied to the same taxa growing in nature.

28.2.  Hybrids, including those arising in cultivation, may receive names as
provided in Appendix I (see also Arts. 40, and 50).

Note 1.  Additional, independent designations for plants used in agriculture, forestry, and horticul-
ture (and arising either in nature or cultivation) are dealt with in the International Code of
Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, where regulations are provided for their formation and use.
However, nothing precludes the use for cultivated plants of names published in accordance with
the requirements of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.

Note 2.  Epithets published in conformity with the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
may be used as cultivar epithets under the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature for
Cultivated Plants, when this is considered to be the appropriate status for the groups concerned.
Otherwise, cultivar epithets published on or after 1 January 1959 in conformity with the Inter-
national Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants are required to be fancy names markedly
different from epithets of names in Latin form governed by the International Code of Botanical
Nomenclature (see that Code, Art. 27).

Ex. 1.  Cultivar names: Taxus baccata 'Variegata' or Taxus baccata cv. Variegata (based on T.
baccata
var. variegata Weston), Phlox drummondii 'Sternenzauber', Viburnum ×bodnantense
"Dawn".

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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29 Effective publication

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHAPTER IV. EFFECTIVE AND VALID PUBLICATION
 
 

SECTION 1. CONDITIONS AND DATES OF EFFECTIVE PUBLICATION

Article 29

29.1.  Publication is effected, under this Code, only by distribution of printed
matter (through sale, exchange, or gift) to the general public or at least to
botanical institutions with libraries accessible to botanists generally. It is not
effected by communication of new names at a public meeting, by the placing of
names in collections or gardens open to the public, or by the issue of microfilm
made from manuscripts, type-scripts or other unpublished material.

Ex. 1.  Cusson announced his establishment of the genus Physospermum in a memoir read at the
Société des Sciences de Montpellier in 1770, and later in 1782 or 1783 at the Société de Médecine
de Paris, but its effective publication dates from 1787 in the Mémoires de la Société Royale de
Médecine de Paris 5(1): 279.

29.2.  Publication by indelible autograph before 1 Jan. 1953 is effective.

Ex. 2.  Salvia oxyodon Webb & Heldr. was effectively published in July 1850 in an autograph cata-
logue placed on sale (Webb & Heldreich, Catalogus Plantarum Hispanicarum ... ab A. Blanco
lectarum. Paris, July 1850, folio).

Ex. 3.  H. Léveillé, Flore du Kouy Tchéou (1914-1915), a work lithographed from the handwritten
manuscript, is effectively published.

29.3.  For the purpose of this Article, handwritten material, even though repro-
duced by some mechanical or graphic process (such as lithography, offset, or
metallic etching), is still considered as autographic.

29.4.  Publication on or after 1 Jan. 1953 in tradesmen’s catalogues or non-
scientific newspapers, and on or after 1 Jan. 1973 in seed-exchange lists, does
not constitute effective publication.

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Effective publication 30-31

Recommendation 29A

29A.1.  It is strongly recommended that authors avoid publishing new names and descriptions of
new taxa in ephemeral printed matter of any kind, in particular that which is multiplied in restrict-
ed and uncertain numbers, where the permanence of the text may be limited, where the effective
publication in terms of number of copies is not obvious, or where the printed matter is unlikely to
reach the general public. Authors should also avoid publishing new names and descriptions in
popular periodicals, in abstracting journals, or on correction slips.

Article 30

30.1.  The date of effective publication is the date on which the printed matter
became available as defined in Art. 29. In the absence of proof establishing
some other date, the one appearing in the printed matter must be accepted as
correct.

Ex. 1.  Individual parts of Willdenow’s Species Plantarum were published as follows: 1(1), 1797;
1(2), 1798; 2(1), 1799; 2(2), 1799 or January 1800; 3(1) (to page 850), 1800; 3(2) (to page 1470),
1802; 3(3) (to page 2409),1803 (and later than Michaux’s Flora Boreali-Americana); 4(1) (to page
630), 1805; 4(2), 1806; these dates, which are partly in disagreement with those on the title-pages of
the volumes, are accepted as the correct dates of effective publication.

30.2.  When separates from periodicals or other works placed on sale are
issued in advance, the date on the separate is accepted as the date of effective
publication unless there is evidence that it is erroneous.

Ex. 2.  Publication in separates issued in advance: the names of the Selaginella species published by
Hieronymus in Hedwigia 51: 241-272 (1912) were effectively published on 15 Oct. 1911, since the
volume in which the paper appeared states (p. ii) that the separate appeared on that date.

Recommendation 30A

30A.1.  The date on which the publisher or his agent delivers printed matter to one of the usual
carriers for distribution to the public should be accepted as its date of effective publication.

Article 31

31.1.  The distribution on or after 1 Jan. 1953 of printed matter accompanying
exsiccata does not constitute effective publication.

Note 1.  If the printed matter is also distributed independently of the exsiccata, this constitutes
effective publication.

Ex. 1.  Works such as Schedae operis . . . plantae finlandiae exsiccatae, Helsingfors 1. 1906, 2. 1916,
3. 1933, 1944, or Lundell & Nannfeldt, Fungi exsiccati suecici etc., Uppsala 1-. . ., 1934-. . ., distrib-
uted independently of the exsiccata, whether published before or after 1 Jan. 1953, are effectively
published.

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32 Valid publication

SECTION 2. CONDITIONS AND DATES OF VALID PUBLICATION OF NAMES

Article 32

32.1.  In order to be validly published, a name of a taxon (autonyms excepted)
must (a) be effectively published (see Art. 29) on or after the starting-point
date of the respective group (Art. 13.1); (b) have a form which complies with
the provisions of Arts. 16-27 and Arts. H.6-7; (c) be accompanied by a de-
scription or diagnosis or by a reference to a previously and effectively pub-
lished description or diagnosis (except as provided in Art. H.9); and (d) com-
ply with the special provisions of Arts. 33-45.

Ex. 1.  Egeria Néraud (in Gaudichaud, Voy. Uranie, Bot. 25, 28. 1826), published without a de-
scription or a diagnosis or a reference to a former one, was not validly published.

Ex. 2.  The name Loranthus macrosolen Steudel originally appeared without a description or
diagnosis on the printed labels issued about the year 1843 with Sect. II. no. 529, 1288, of Schimper’s
herbarium specimens of Abyssinian plants; it was not validly published, however, until A. Richard
(Tent. Pl. Abyss. 1: 340. 1847) supplied a description.

Ex. 3.  In Sweet’s Hortus Britannicus, ed. 3 (1839), for each listed species the flower colour, the
duration of the plant, and a translation into English of the specific epithet are given in tabular
form. In many genera the flower colour and duration may be identical for all species and clearly
their mention is not intended as a validating description. New names appearing in that work are
therefore not validly published, except in some cases where reference is made to earlier descrip-
tions or to validly published basionyms.

32.2.  A diagnosis of a taxon is a statement of that which in the opinion of its
author distinguishes the taxon from others.

32.3.  For the purpose of valid publication of a name, reference to a previously
and effectively published description or diagnosis may be direct or indirect
(Art. 32.4). For names published on or after 1 Jan. 1953 it must, however, be
full and direct as specified in Art. 33.2.

32.4.  An indirect reference is a clear indication, by the citation of the author’s
name or in some other way, that a previously and effectively published descrip-
tion or diagnosis applies.

Ex. 4.  Kratzmannia Opiz (in Berchtold & Opiz, Oekon.-Techn. Fl. Böhm. 1: 398. 1836) is pub-
lished with a diagnosis, but it was not definitely accepted by the author and is therefore not validly
published. It is accepted definitely in Opiz (Seznam 56. 1852), but without any description or
diagnosis. The citation of "Kratzmannia O." includes an indirect reference to the previously
published diagnosis in 1836.

Ex. 5.  Opiz published the name of the genus Hemisphace (Bentham) Opiz (1852) without a
description or diagnosis, but as he wrote "Hemisphace Benth." he indirectly referred to the pre-
viously effectively published description by Bentham (Labiat. Gen. Spec. 193. 1833) of Salvia sect.
Hemisphace.

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32 Valid publication

Ex. 6.  The new combination Cymbopogon martini (Roxb.) W. Watson (1882) is validated by the
addition of the number "309", which, as explained at the top of the same page, is the running-
number of the species (Andropogon martini Roxb.) in Steudel (Syn. Pl. Glum. 1: 388. 1854).
Although the reference to the basionym Andropogon martini is indirect, it is perfectly unam-
biguous.

32.5.  Names published with an incorrect Latin termination but otherwise in
accordance with this Code are regarded as validly published; they are to be
changed to accord with Arts. 17-19, 21, 23, and 24, without change of the
author’s name or date of publication (see also Art. 73.10).

32.6.  Autonyms (Art. 6.8) are accepted as validly published names, dating
from the publication in which they were established (see Arts. 19.4, 22.2, 26.2),
whether or not they appear in print in that publication.

Note 1.  In certain circumstances an illustration with analysis is accepted as equivalent to a descrip-
tion (see Arts. 42 and 44).

Note 2.  For names of plant taxa that were originally not treated as plants, see Art. 45.4.

Recommendation 32A

32A.1.  A name should not be validated solely by a reference to a description or diagnosis pub-
lished before 1753.

Recommendation 32B

32B.1.  The description or diagnosis of any new taxon should mention the points in which the taxon
differs from its allies.

Recommendation 32C

32C.1.  Authors should avoid adoption of a name which has been previously but not validly pub-
lished for a different taxon.

Recommendation 32D

32D.1.  In describing new taxa, authors should, when possible, supply figures with details of struc-
ture as an aid to identification.

32D.2.  In the explanation of the figures, it is valuable to indicate the specimen(s) on which they
are based.

32D.3.  Authors should indicate clearly and precisely the scale of the figures which they publish.

Recommendation 32E

32E.1.  The description or diagnosis of parasitic plants should always be followed by an indication
of the hosts, especially those of parasitic fungi. The hosts should be designated by their scientific
names and not solely by names in modern languages, the applications of which are often doubtful.

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33 Valid publication

Article 33

33.1.  A combination (autonyms excepted) is not validly published unless the
author definitely associates the final epithet with the name of the genus or
species, or with its abbreviation.

Ex. 1.  Combinations validly published: In Linnaeus’s Species Plantarum the placing of the epithet
in the margin opposite the name of the genus clearly associates the epithet with the name of the
genus. The same result is attained in Miller’s Gardeners Dictionary, ed. 8, by the inclusion of the
epithet in parentheses immediately after the name of the genus, in Steudel’s Nomenclator Botani-
cus by the arrangement of the epithets in a list headed by the name of the genus, and in general by
any typographical device which associates an epithet with a particular generic or specific name.

Ex. 2.  Combinations not validly published: Rafinesque’s statement under Blephilia that "Le type
de ce genre est la Monarda ciliata Linn." (J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts 89: 98. 1819) does not
constitute valid publication of the combination Blephilia ciliata, since he did not definitely as-
sociate the epithet ciliata with the generic name Blephilia. Similarly, the combination Eulophus
peucedanoides
is not to be ascribed to Bentham on the basis of the listing of "Cnidium peucedano-
ides
, H. B. et K." under Eulophus (in Bentham & Hooker, Gen. Pl. 1: 885. 1867).

33.2.  A new combination, or an avowed substitute (nomen novum), published
on or after 1 Jan. 1953, for a previously and validly published name is not valid-
ly published unless its basionym (name-bringing or epithet-bringing synonym)
or the replaced synonym (when a new name is proposed) is clearly indicated
and a full and direct reference given to its author and place of valid publication
with page or plate reference¹ and date. Errors of bibliographic citation and
incorrect forms of author citation (see Art. 46) do not invalidate publication of
a new combination or nomen novum.

Ex. 3.  In transferring Ectocarpus mucronatus Saund. to Giffordia, Kjeldsen & Phinney (Madroño
22: 90. 27 Apr. 1973) cited the basionym and its author but without reference to its place of valid
publication. They later (Madroño 22: 154. 2 Jul. 1973) validated the binomial Giffordia mucronata
(Saund.) Kjeldsen & Phinney by giving a full and direct reference to the place of valid publication
of the basionym.

Ex. 4.  Aronia arbutifolia var. nigra (Willd.) Seymour (1969) was published as a new combination
"Based on Mespilus arbutifolia L. var. nigra Willd., in Sp. Pl. 2: 1013. 1800." Willdenow treated
these plants in the genus Pyrus, not Mespilus, and publication was in 1799, not 1800; these errors
are treated as bibliographic errors of citation and do not invalidate the new combination.

Ex. 5.  The combination Trichipteris kalbreyeri was proposed by Tryon (Contr. Gray Herb. 200: 45.
1970) with a full and direct reference to Alsophila kalbreyeri C. Chr. (Index Filic. 44. 1905). This,
however, was not the place of valid publication of the basionym, which had previously been pub-
lished, with the same type, by Baker (Summ. New Ferns 9. 1892). Tryon’s bibliographic error of
citation does not invalidate this new combination, which is to be cited as Trichipteris kalbreyeri
(Baker) Tryon.

——————

1)  A page reference (for publications with a consecutive pagination) is here understood to
     mean a reference to the page or pages on which the basionym was validly published or on which
     the protologue is printed, but not to the pagination of the whole publication unless it is coex-
     tensive with that of the protologue.

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Valid publication 33

Ex. 6.  The combination Lasiobelonium corticale was proposed by Raitviir (1980) with a full and
direct reference to Peziza corticalis Fr. (Syst. Mycol. 2: 96. 1822). This, however, was not the place
of valid publication of the basionym, which, under the Code operating in 1980, was in Mérat
(Nouv. Fl. Env. Paris ed. 2, 1: 22. 1821), and under the present Code is in Persoon (Obs. Mycol. 1:
28. 1796). Raitviir’s bibliographic error of citation does not invalidate the new combination, which
is to be cited as Lasiobelonium corticale (Pers.) Raitviir.

33.3.  Mere reference to the Index Kewensis, the Index of Fungi, or any work
other than that in which the name was validly published does not constitute a
full and direct reference to the original publication of a name.

Ex. 7.  Ciferri (Mycopath. Mycol. Appl. 7: 86-89. 1954), in proposing 142 new combinations in
Meliola, omitted references to places of publication of basionyms, stating that they could be found
in Petrak’s lists or in the Index of Fungi; none of these combinations was validly published. Simi-
larly, Grummann (Cat. Lich. Germ. 18. 1963) introduced a new combination in the form Lecanora
campestns
f. "pseudistera (Nyt.) Grumm. c.n. – L. p. Nyl., Z 5: 521", in which "Z 5" referred to
Zahlbruckner (Cat. Lich. Univ., vol. 5: 521. 1928), who gave the full citation of the basionym,
Lecanora pseudistera Nyl.; Grummann’s combination is not validly published.

Note 1.  The publication of a name for a taxon previously known under a misapplied name must be
valid under Arts. 32-45. This procedure is not the same as publishing an avowed substitute
(nomen novum) for a validly published but illegitimate name (Art. 72.1(b)), the type of which is
necessarily the same as that of the name which it replaced (Art. 7.11).

Ex. 8.  Sadleria hillebrandii Robinson (1913) was introduced as a "nom. nov." for "Sadleria pallida
Hilleb. Fl. Haw. Is. 582. 1888. Not Hook. & Arn. Bot. Beech. 75. 1832." Since the requirements of
Arts. 32-45 were satisfied (for valid publication prior to 1935, simple reference to a previous
description in any language is sufficient), the name is validly published. It is, however, to be
considered the name of a new species, validated by the citation of the misapplication of S. pallida
Hooker & Arn. by Hillebrand, and not a nomen novum as stated; hence, Art. 7.11 does not apply.

Ex. 9.  Juncus bufonius var. occidentalis F. J. Herm. (U.S. Forest Serv. Techn. Rep. RM-18: 14.
1975) was published as a "nom. et stat. nov." for J. sphaerocarpus "auct. Am., non Nees". Since
there is no Latin diagnosis, designation of type, or reference to any previous publication providing
these requirements, the name is not validly published.

33.4.  A name given to a taxon whose rank is at the same time denoted by a
misplaced term (one contrary to Art. 5) is treated as not validly published,
examples of such misplacement being a form divided into varieties, a species
containing genera, or a genus containing families or tribes.

Ex. 10.  The name sectio Orontiaceae was not validly published by R. Brown (Prodr. 337. 1810)
since he misapplied the term "sectio" to taxa of a rank higher than genus.

Ex. 11.  The names tribus Involuta Huth and tribus Brevipedunculata Huth (Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 20:
365, 368. 1895) are not validly published, since Huth misapplied the term "tribus" to a taxon of a
rank lower than section, within the genus Delphinium.

Ex. 12.  Gandoger, in his Flora Europae (1883-1891), applied the term species ("espèce") and used
binary nomenclature for two categories of taxa of consecutive rank, the higher rank being equiva-
lent to that of species in contemporary literature. He misapplied the term species to the lower rank
and the names of these taxa ("Gandoger’s microspecies") are not validly published.

33.5.  An exception to Art. 33.4 is made for names of the subdivisions of genera
termed tribes (tribus) in Fries’s Systema Mycologicum, which are treated as
validly published names of subdivisions of genera.

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34 Valid publication

Ex. 13.  Agaricus tribus Pholiota Fr. (1821) is a validly published basionym for the generic name
Pholiota (Fr.) P. Kummer (1871).

Recommendation 33A

33A.1.  The full and direct reference to the place of publication of the basionym or replaced syn-
onym should immediately follow a proposed new combination or nomen novum. It should not be
provided by mere cross-reference to a bibliography at the end of the publication or to other parts
of the same publication, e.g. by use of the abbreviations "loc. cit." or "op. cit."

Article 34

34.1.  A name is not validly published (a) when it is not accepted by the author
in the original publication; (b) when it is merely proposed in anticipation of the
future acceptance of the group concerned, or of a particular circumscription,
position, or rank of the group (so-called provisional name); (c) when it is

merely cited as a synonym; (d) by the mere mention of the subordinate taxa
included in the taxon concerned.

34.2.  Art. 34.1( a) does not apply to names published with a question mark or
other indication of taxonomic doubt, yet published and accepted by the author.
Art. 34.1(b) does not apply to names for anamorphs of fungi published in
holomorphic genera in anticipation of the discovery of a particular kind of
teleomorph (see Art. 59, Ex. 2). 

Ex. 1.  (a) The name of the monotypic genus Sebertia Pierre (ms.) was not validly published by
Baillon (Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 2: 945. 1891) because he did not accept it. Although he gave a
description of the taxon, he referred its only species Sebertia acuminata Pierre (ms.) to the genus
Sersalisia R. Br. as Sersalisia ? acuminata; under the provision of Art. 34.2 this combination is
validly published. The name Sebertia Pierre (ms.) was later validly published by Engler (1897).

Ex. 2.  (a) The names listed in the left-hand column of the Linnaean thesis Herbarium Amboinen-
se defended by Stickman (1754) were not accepted by Linnaeus upon publication and are not
validly published.

Ex. 3.  (a) (b) The generic name Conophyton Haw., suggested by Haworth (Rev. Pl. Succ. 82. 1821)
for Mesembryanthemum sect. Minima Haw. (Rev. Pl. Succ. 81. 1821) in the words "If this section
proves to be a genus, the name of Conophyton would be apt", was not validly published, since
Haworth did not adopt that generic name or accept that genus. The correct name for the genus is
Conophytum N. E. Br. (1922).

Ex. 4.  (c) Acosmus Desv. (in Desf., Cat. Pl. Horti Paris. 233. 1829), cited as a synonym of the
generic name Aspicarpa Rich., was not validly published thereby.

Ex. 5.  (c) Ornithogalum undulatum hort. Bouch. (in Kunth, Enum. Pl. 4: 348. 1843), cited as a
synonym under Myogalum boucheanum Kunth, was not validly published thereby; when trans-
ferred to Ornithogalum, this species is to be called O. boucheanum (Kunth) Ascherson (1866).

Ex. 6.  (c) Erythrina micropteryx Poeppig was not validly published by being cited as a synonym of
Micropteryx poeppigiana Walp. (1850); the species concerned, when placed under Erythrina, is to
be called E. poeppigiana (Walp.) Cook (1901).

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Valid publication 35

Ex. 7.  (d) The family name Rhaptopetalaceae Pierre (Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Paris 2: 1296. May
1897), which was accompanied merely by mention of constituent genera, Brazzeia, Scytopetalum,
and Rhaptopetalum, was not validly published, as Pierre gave no description or diagnosis; the
family bears the later name Scytopetalaceae Engler (Oct. 1897), which was accompanied by a
description.

Ex. 8.  (d) The generic name Ibidium Salisb. (Trans. Hort. Soc. London 1: 291. 1812) was published
merely with the mention of four included species. As Salisbury supplied no generic description or
diagnosis, his Ibidium is not validly published.

34.3.  When, on or after 1 Jan. 1953, two or more different names (so-called
alternative names) are proposed simultaneously for the same taxon by the
same author, none of them is validly published. This rule does not apply in
those cases where the same combination is simultaneously used at different
ranks, either for infraspecific taxa within a species or for subdivisions of a
genus within a genus (see Recs. 22A.1-2, 26A.1-3).

Ex. 9.  The species of Brosimum described by Ducke (Arch. Jard. Bot. Rio de Janeiro 3: 23-29.
1922) were published with alternative names under Piratinera added in a footnote (pp. 23-24). The
publication of these names, being effected before 1 Jan. 1953, is valid.

Ex. 10.  Euphorbia jaroslavii Polj. (Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk SSSR 15:
155. tab. 1953) was published with an alternative name, Tithymalus jaroslavii. Neither name was
validly published. However, one of the names, Euphorbia yaroslavii (with a different translitera-
tion of the initial letter), was validly published by Poljakov (1961), who effectively published it with
a new reference to the earlier publication and simultaneously rejected the other name.

Ex. 11.  Description of "Malvastrum bicuspidatum subsp. tumidum S. R. Hill var. tumidum, subsp.
et var. nov." (Brittonia 32: 474. 1980) simultaneously validated both M. bicuspidatum subsp.
tumidum S. R. Hill and M. bicuspidatum var. tumidum S. R Hill.

Note 1.  The name of a fungal holomorph and that of a correlated anamorph (see Art. 59), even if
validated simultaneously, are not alternative names in the sense of Art. 34.3. They have different
types and do not pertain to the same taxon: the circumscription of the holomorph is considered to
include the anamorph, but not vice versa.

Ex. 12.  Lasiosphaeria elinorae Linder (1929), the name of a fungal holomorph, and the simulta-
neously published name of a correlated anamorph, Helicosporium elinorae Linder, are both valid,
and both can be used under Art. 59.5.

Recommendation 34A

34A.1.  Authors should avoid publishing or mentioning in their publications unpublished names
which they do not accept, especially if the persons responsible for these unpublished names have
not formally authorized their publication (see Rec. 23B.1(i)).

Article 35

35.1.  A new name or combination published on or after 1 Jan. 1953 without a
clear indication of the rank of the taxon concerned is not validly published.

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36 Valid publication

35.2.  A new name or combination published before 1 Jan. 1953 without a clear
indication of rank is validly published provided that all other requirements for
valid publication are fulfilled; it is, however, inoperative in questions of priority
except for homonymy (see Art. 64.4). If it is a new name, it may serve as a
basionym or replaced synonym for subsequent combinations or avowed substi-
tutes in definite ranks.

Ex. 1.  The groups Soldanellae, Sepincoli, Occidentales, etc., were published without any indication
of rank under the genus Convolvulus by House (Muhlenbergia 4: 50. 1908). These names are
validly published but they are not in any definite rank and have no status in questions of priority
except that they may act as homonyms.

Ex. 2.  In the genus Carex, the epithet Scirpinae was published for an infrageneric taxon of no
stated rank by Tuckerman (Enum. Caric. 8. 1843); this was assigned sectional rank by Kükenthal
(in Engler, Pflanzenr. 38 (IV.20): 81. 1909) and if recognized at this rank is to be cited as Carex
sect. Scirpinae (Tuckerman) Kükenthal.

35.3.  If in a given publication prior to 1 Jan. 1890 only one infraspecific rank is
admitted it is considered to be that of variety unless this would be contrary to
the statements of the author himself in the same publication.

35.4.  In questions of indication of rank, all publications appearing under the
same title and by the same author, such as different parts of a Flora issued at
different times (but not different editions of the same work), must be consid-
ered as a whole, and any statement made therein designating the rank of taxa
included in the work must be considered as if it had been published together
with the first instalment.

Article 36

36.1.  In order to be validly published, a name of a new taxon of plants, the
algae and all fossils excepted, published on or after 1 Jan. 1935 must be ac-
companied by a Latin description or diagnosis or by a reference to a previously
and effectively published Latin description or diagnosis (but see Art. H.9).

Ex. 1.  The names Schiedea gregoriana Degener (Pl. Hawaiiensis, fam. 119. 1936, Apr. 9) and S.
kealiae
Caum & Hosaka (Occas. Pap. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Mus. 11(23): 3. 1936, Apr. 10) were
proposed for the same plant; the type of the former is a part of the original material of the latter.
Since the name S. gregoriana is not accompanied by a Latin description or diagnosis it is not
validly published; the later S. kealiae is legitimate.

36.2.  In order to be validly published, a name of a new taxon of non-fossil
algae published on or after 1 Jan. 1958 must be accompanied by a Latin de-
scription or diagnosis or by a reference to a previously and effectively pub-
lished Latin description or diagnosis.

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Valid publication 37-38

Recommendation 36A

36A.1.  Authors publishing names of new taxa of non-fossil plants should give or cite a full descrip-
tion in Latin in addition to the diagnosis.

Article 37

37.1.  Publication on or after 1 Jan. 1958 of the name of a new taxon of the rank
of genus or below is valid only when the holotype of the name is indicated (see
Arts. 7-10; but see Art. H.9, Note 1 for the names of certain hybrids).

37.2.  For the name of a new genus or subdivision of a genus, inclusion of
reference (direct or indirect) to a single type of a name of a species is accept-
able as indication of the holotype (see also Art. 22.4; but see Art. 37.4).

37.3.  For the name of a new species or infraspecific taxon, citation of a single
element is acceptable as indication of the holotype (but see Art. 37.4). Mere
citation of a locality without concrete reference to a specimen does not how-
ever constitute indication of a holotype. Citation of the collector’s name and/or
collecting number and/or date of collection and/or reference to any other
detail of the type specimen or illustration is required.

37.4.  For the name of a new taxon published on or after 1 Jan. 1990, indication
of the holotype must include one of the words "typus" or "holotypus", or its
abbreviation, or its equivalent in a modern language.

37.5.  For the name of a new species or infraspecific taxon published on or
after 1 Jan. 1990 whose type is a specimen or unpublished illustration, the
herbarium or institution in which the type is conserved must be specified.

Note 1.  Specification of the herbarium or institution may be made in an abbreviated form, e.g. as
given in the Index Herbariorum.

Recommendation 37A

37A.1.  The indication of the nomenclatural type should immediately follow the description or
diagnosis and should use the Latin word "typus" or "holotypus".

Article 38

38.1.  In order to be validly published, a name of a new taxon of fossil plants of
specific or lower rank published on or after 1 Jan. 1912 must be accompanied
by an illustration or figure showing the essential characters, in addition to the
description or diagnosis, or by a reference to a previously and effectively pub-
lished illustration or figure.

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39-40 Valid publication

Article 39

39.1.  In order to be validly published, a name of a new taxon of non-fossil
algae of specific or lower rank published on or after 1 Jan. 1958 must be ac-
companied by an illustration or figure showing the distinctive morphological
features, in addition to the Latin description or diagnosis, or by a reference to
a previously and effectively published illustration or figure.

Recommendation 39A

39A.1.  The illustration or figure required by Art. 39 should be prepared from actual specimens,
preferably including the holotype.

Article 40

40.1.  In order to be validly published, names of hybrids of specific or lower
rank with Latin epithets must comply with the same rules as names of non-
hybrid taxa of the same rank.

Ex. 1.  The name Nepeta ×faassenii Bergmans (Vaste Pl. ed. 2. 544. 1939) with a description in
Dutch, and in Gentes Herb. 8: 64 (1949) with a description in English, is not validly published, not
being accompanied by or associated with a Latin description or diagnosis. The name Nepeta
×faassenii Bergmans ex Stearn (1950) is validly published, being accompanied by a Latin descrip-
tion with designation of type.

Ex. 2.  The name Rheum ×cultorum Thorsrud & Reis. (Norske Plantenavr. 95. 1948), being there a
nomen nudum, is not validly published.

Ex. 3.  The name Fumaria ×salmonii Druce (List Brit. Pl. 4. 1908) is not validly published, because
only its presumed parentage F. densiflora × F. officinalis is stated.

Note 1.  For names of hybrids of the rank of genus or subdivision of a genus, see Art. H.9.

40.2.  For purposes of priority, names in Latin form given to hybrids are subject
to the same rules as are those of non-hybrid taxa of equivalent rank.

Ex. 4.  The name ×Solidaster Wehrh. (1932) antedates the name ×Asterago Everett (1937) for the
hybrid Aster × Solidago.

Ex. 5.  The name ×Gaulnettya W. J. Marchant (1937) antedates the name ×Gaulthettya Camp
(1939) for the hybrid Gaultheria × Pernettya.

Ex. 6.  Anemone ×hybrida Paxton (1848) antedates A. ×elegans Decne. (1852), pro sp., as the bino-
mial for the hybrids derived from A. hupehensis × A. vitifolia.

Ex. 7.  In 1927, Aimée Camus (Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 33: 538) published the name ×Agro-
elymus
as the name of a nothogenus, without a Latin diagnosis or description, mentioning only the
names of the parents involved (Agropyron and Elymus). Since this name was not validly published
under the Code then in force (Stockholm 1950), Jacques Rousseau, in 1952 (Mém. Jard. Bot.
Montréal 29: 10-11), published a Latin diagnosis. However, the date of valid publication of the
name ×Agroelymus under this Code (Art. H.9) is 1927, not 1952, and the name also antedates
×Elymopyrum Cugnac (Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Ardennes 33: 14. 1938) which is accompanied by a
statement of parentage and a description in French but not Latin.

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Valid publication 41

Article 41

41.1.  In order to be validly published, a name of a family must be accompanied
(a) by a description or diagnosis of the family, or (b) by a reference (direct or
indirect) to a previously and effectively published description or diagnosis of a
family or subdivision of a family.

Ex. 1.  The name "Pseudoditrichaceae fam. nov." was not validly published by Steere and Iwatsuki
(Canad. J. Bot. 52: 701. 1974) as there was no Latin diagnosis, description, or reference to either,
but only mention of the single included genus and species (see Art. 34.1(e)), "Pseudoditrichum
mirabile
gen. et sp. nov.", for both of which the name was validated under Art. 42 by a single Latin
diagnosis.

41.2.  In order to be validly published, a name of a genus must be accompanied
(a) by a description or diagnosis of the genus (but see Art. 42), or (b) by a
reference (direct or indirect) to a previously and effectively published descrip-
tion or diagnosis of a genus or subdivision of a genus.

Ex. 2.  Validly published generic names: Carphalea A. L. Juss., accompanied by a generic descrip-
tion; Thuspeinanta T. Durand, accompanied by a reference to the previously described genus
Tapeinanthus Boiss. (non Herbert); Aspalathoides (DC.) K. Koch, based on a previously de-
scribed section, Anthyllis sect. Aspalathoides DC.; Scirpoides Scheuchzer ex Séguier (Pl. Veron.
Suppl. 73. 1754), accepted there but without a generic description, validated by indirect reference
(through the title of the book and a general statement in the preface) to the generic diagnosis and
further direct references in Séguier (Pl. Veron. 1: 117. 1745).

Note 1.  An exception to Art. 41.2 is made for the generic names first published by Linnaeus in
Species Plantarum ed. 1 (1753) and ed. 2 (1762-1763), which are treated as having been validly
published on those dates (see Art. 13.4).

Note 2.  In certain circumstances, an illustration with analysis is accepted as equivalent to a generic
description (see Art. 42.2).

41.3.  In order to be validly published, a name of a species must be accompa-
nied (a) by a description or diagnosis of the species (but see Arts. 42 and 44),
or (b) by a reference to a previously and effectively published description or
diagnosis of a species or infraspecific taxon, or (c), under certain circumstan-
ces, by reference to a genus whose name was previously and validly published
simultaneously with its description or diagnosis. A reference as mentioned
under (c) is acceptable only if neither the author of the name of the genus nor
the author of the name of the species indicate that more than one species
belongs to the genus in question.

Ex. 3.  Trilepisium Thouars (1806) was validated by a generic description but without mention of a
name of a species. Trilepisium madagascariense DC. (1828) was subsequently proposed without a
description of the species. Neither author gave any indication that there was more than one species
in the genus. Augustin-Pyramus de Candolle’s specific name is therefore validly published.

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42-43 Valid publication

Article 42

42.1.  The names of a genus and a species may be simultaneously validated by
provision of a single description (descriptio generico-specifica) or diagnosis,
even though this may have been intended as only generic or specific, if all of
the following conditions obtain: (a) the genus is at that time monotypic; (b) no
other names (at any rank) have previously been validly published based on the
same type; and (c) the names of the genus and species otherwise fulfil the
requirements for valid publication. Reference to an earlier description or
diagnosis is not accepted as provision of such a description or diagnosis.

Note 1.  In this context a monotypic genus is one for which a single binomial is validly published,
even though the author may indicate that other species are attributable to the genus.

Ex. 1.  The names Kedarnatha Mukherjee & Constance (Brittonia 38: 147. 1986) and Kedarnatha
sanctuarii
Mukherjee & Constance, the latter designating the only species in the new genus, are
both validly published although a Latin description is provided only under the generic name.

Ex. 2.  Piptolepis phillyreoides Bentham is a new species assigned to the monotypic new genus
Piptolepis published with a combined generic and specific description.

Ex. 3.  In publishing Phaelypea without a generic description, P. Browne (Civ. Nat. Hist. Jamaica
269. 1756) included and described a single species, but he gave the species a phrase-name and did
not provide a valid binomial. Art. 42 does not therefore apply and Phaelypea is not validly pub-
lished.

42.2.  Prior to 1 Jan. 1908 an illustration with analysis, or for non-vascular
plants a single figure showing details aiding identification, is acceptable, for the
purpose of this Article, in place of a written description or diagnosis.

Note 2.  An analysis in this context is a figure or group of figures, commonly separate from the
main illustration of the plant (though usually on the same page or plate), showing details aiding
identification, with or without a separate caption.

Ex. 4.  The generic name Philgamia Baillon (1894) was validly published, as it appeared on a plate
with analysis of the only included species, P. hibbertioides Baillon, and was published before 1 Jan.
1908.

Article 43

43.1.  A name of a taxon below the rank of genus is not validly published unless
the name of the genus or species to which it is assigned is validly published at
the same time or was validly published previously.

Ex. 1.  Binary designations for six species of Suaeda, including Suaeda baccata and S. vera, were
published with diagnoses and descriptions by Forsskål (Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 69-71. 1775), but he
provided no diagnosis or description for the genus: these specific names were therefore, like the
generic name, not validly published by him.

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Valid publication 44-45

Ex. 2.  In 1880, Müller Argoviensis (Flora 63: 286) published the new genus Phlyctidia with the
species P. hampeana n. sp., P. boliviensis (= Phlyctis boliviensis Nyl.), P. sorediiformis (= Phlyctis
sorediiformis
Kremp.), P. brasiliensis (= Phlyctis brasiliensis Nyl.), and P. andensis (= Phlyctis
andensis
Nyl.). These specific names are, however, not validly published in this place, because the
generic name Phlyctidia was not validly published; Müller gave no generic description or diagnosis
but only a description and a diagnosis of the new species P. hampeana. This description and di-
agnosis cannot validate the generic name as a descriptio generico-specifica under Art. 42 since the
new genus was not monotypic. Valid publication of the name Phlyctidia was by Müller (1895), who
provided a short generic diagnosis. The only species mentioned here were P. ludoviciensis n. sp.
and P. boliviensis (Nyl.). The latter combination was validly published in 1895 by the reference to
the basionym.

Note 1.  This Article applies also to specific and other epithets published under words not to be
regarded as generic names (see Art. 20.4).

Ex. 3.  The binary combination Anonymos aquatica Walter (Fl. Carol. 230. 1788) is not validly
published. The correct name for the species concerned is Planera aquatica J. F. Gmelin (1791),
and the date of the name, for purposes of priority, is 1791. The species must not be cited as Pla-
nera aquatica
(Walter) J. F. Gmelin.

Ex. 4.  The binary combination Scirpoides paradoxus Rottb. (Descr. Pl. Rar. Progr. 27. 1772) is not
validly published since Scirpoides in this context is a word not intended as a generic name. The
first validly published name for this species is Fuirena umbellata Rottb. (1773).

Article 44

44.1.  The name of a species or of an infraspecific taxon published before 1
Jan. 1908 is validly published if it is accompanied only by an illustration with
analysis (see Art. 42, Note 2).

Ex. 1.  Panax nossibiensis Drake (1896) was validly published on a plate with analysis.

44.2.  Single figures of non-vascular plants showing details aiding identification
are considered as illustrations with analysis (see Art. 42, Note 2).

Ex. 2.  Eunotia gibbosa Grunow (1881), a name of a diatom, was validly published by provision of a
single figure of the valve.

Article 45

45.1.  The date of a name is that of its valid publication. When the various con-
ditions for valid publication are not simultaneously fulfilled, the date is that on
which the last is fulfilled. However, the name must always be explicitly ac-
cepted in the place of its validation. A name published on or after 1 Jan. 1973
for which the various conditions for valid publication are not simultaneously
fulfilled is not validly published unless a full and direct reference (Art. 33.2) is
given to the places where these requirements were previously fulfilled.

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45 Valid publication

Ex. 1.  Clypeola minor first appeared in the Linnaean thesis Flora Monspeliensis (1756), in a list of
names preceded by numerals but without an explanation of the meaning of these numerals and
without any other descriptive matter; when the thesis was reprinted in vol. 4 of the Amoenitates
Academicae (1759), a statement was added explaining that the numbers referred to earlier descrip-
tions published in Magnol’s Botanicon Monspeliense. However, Clypeola minor was absent from
the reprint, being no longer accepted by Linnaeus, and the name is not therefore validly published.

Ex. 2.  When proposing Graphis meridionalis as a new species, in 1966. Nakanishi (J. Sci. Hiro-
shima Univ., ser. B (2), 11: 75) provided a Latin description but failed to designate a holotype.
Graphis meridionalis Nakanishi was validly published only in 1967 (J. Sci. Hiroshima Univ., ser.
B (2), 11: 265) when he designated the holotype of the name and provided a full and direct re-
ference to the previous publication.

45.2.  A correction of the original spelling of a name (see Art. 73) does not
affect its date of valid publication.

Ex. 3.  The correction of the orthographic error in Gluta benghas L. (Mant. 293. 1771) to Gluta
renghas
L. does not affect the date of publication of the name even though the correction dates
only from 1883 (Engler in A. DC. & C. DC., Monogr. Phan. 4: 225).

45.3.  For purposes of priority only legitimate names are taken into considera-
tion (see Arts. 11, 63-65). However, validly published earlier homonyms,
whether legitimate or not, shall cause rejection of their later homonyms, unless
the latter are conserved or sanctioned (but see Art. 14 Note 2).

45.4.  If a taxon originally assigned to a group not covered by this Code is
treated as belonging to a group of plants other than algae, the authorship and
date of any of its names are determined by the first publication that satisfies
the requirements for valid publication under this Code. If the taxon is treated
as belonging to the algae, any of its names need satisfy only the requirements
of the pertinent non-botanical code for status equivalent to valid publication
under the botanical Code (but see Art. 65, regarding homonymy).

Ex. 4.  Amphiprora Ehrenb. (1843) is an available¹ name for a genus of animals first treated as
belonging to the algae by Kützing (1844). Amphiprora has priority in botanical nomenclature from
1843, not 1844.

Ex. 5.  Petalodinium J. Cachon & M. Cachon (Protistologica 5: 16. 1969) is available under the
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature as the name of a genus of dinoflagellates. When
the taxon is treated as belonging to the algae, its name retains its original authorship and date even
though the original publication lacked a Latin diagnosis.

Ex. 6.  Labyrinthodyction Valkanov (Progr. Protozool. 3: 373. 1969), although available under the
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature as the name of a genus of rhizopods, is not valid
when the taxon is treated as belonging to the fungi because the original publication lacked a Latin
diagnosis.

Ex. 7.  Protodiniferidae Kofoid & Swezy (Mem. Univ. Calif. 5: 111. 1921), available under the
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, is validly published as a name of a family of algae
with its original authorship and date but with the termination -idae changed to -aceae (in accord-
ance with Arts. 18.4 and 32.5).

——————

1)  The word "available" in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature is equivalent to
      "validly published" in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.

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Citation 46

Recommendation 45A

45A.1.  Authors using new names in works written in a modern language (floras, catalogues, etc.)
should simultaneously comply with the requirements of valid publication.

Recommendation 45B

45B.1.  Authors should indicate precisely the dates of publication of their works. In a work ap-
pearing in parts the last-published sheet of the volume should indicate the precise dates on which
the different fascicles or parts of the volume were published as well as the number of pages and
plates in each.

Recommendation 45C

45C.1.  On separately printed and issued copies of works published in a periodical, the name of the
periodical, the number of its volume or parts, the original pagination, and the date (year, month,
and day) should be indicated.
 

SECTION 3. CITATION OF AUTHORS' NAMES FOR PURPOSES OF PRECISION

Article 46

46.1.  For the indication of the name of a taxon to be accurate and complete,
and in order that the date may be readily verified, it is necessary to cite the
name of the author(s) who validly published the name concerned unless the
provisions for autonyms apply (Arts. 19.3, 22.1, and 26.1; see also Art. 16.1).

Ex. 1.  Rosaceae A. L. Juss., Rosa L., Rosa gallica L., Rosa gallica var. eriostyla R. Keller, Rosa
gallica
L. var. gallica.

46.2.  When a name of a taxon and its description or diagnosis (or reference to
a description or diagnosis) are supplied by one author but published in a work
by another author, the word "in" is to be used to connect the names of the two
authors. When it is desirable to simplify such a citation, the name of the author
who supplied the description or diagnosis is to be retained.

Ex. 2.  Viburnum ternatum Rehder in Sargent, Trees and Shrubs 2: 37 (1907), or V. ternatum
Rehder; Teucrium charidemi Sandw. in Lacaita, Cavanillesia 3: 38 (1930), or T. charidemi Sandw.

46.3.  When an author who validly publishes a name ascribes it to another per-
son, e.g. to an author who failed to fulfil all requirements for valid publication
of the name or
to an author who published the name prior to the nomenclatu-
ral starting point of the group concerned (see Art. 13.1), the correct author
citation is the name of the validating author, but the name of the other person,
followed by the connecting word "ex", may be inserted before the name of the
validating author (see also Rec. 50A.2). The same holds for names of garden
origin ascribed to "hort.", meaning "hortulanorum".

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46 Citation

Ex. 3.  Gossypium tomentosum Seemann or G. tomentosum Nutt. ex Seemann; Lithocarpus poly-
stachyus (A. DC.) Rehder or L. polystachyus (Wall. ex A. DC.) Rehder; Orchis rotundifolia Pursh
or O. rotundifolia Banks ex Pursh; Carex stipata Willd. or C. stipata Muhlenb. ex Willd.; Gesneria
donklarii
Hooker or G. donklarii hort. ex Hooker.

Ex. 4.  Lupinus L. or Lupinus Tourn. ex L.; Euastrum binale Ralfs or E. binale Ehrenb. ex Ralfs.

Ex. 5.  The name Lichen debilis, which was validly published by Smith (1812) with "Calicium debile.
Turn. and Borr. Mss." cited as a synonym, is not to be attributed to "Turner & Borrer ex Smith"
(see also Rec. 50A.2).

Recommendation 46A

46A.1.  Authors’ names put after names of plants may be abbreviated, unless they are very short.
For this purpose, particles should be suppressed unless they are an inseparable part of the name,
and the first letters should be given without any omission (Lam. for J. B. P. A. Monet Chevalier de
Lamarck, but De Wild. for E. De Wildeman).

46A.2.  If a name of one syllable is long enough to make it worth while to abridge it, the first
consonants only should be given (Fr. for Elias Magnus Fries); if the name has two or more sylla-
bles, the first syllable and the first letter of the following one should be taken, or the two first when
both are consonants (Juss. for Jussieu, Rich. for Richard).

46A.3.  When it is necessary to give more of a name to avoid confusion between names beginning
with the same syllable, the same system should be followed. For instance, two syllables should be
given together with the one or two first consonants of the third; or one of the last characteristic
consonants of the name be added (Bertol. for Bertoloni, to distinguish it from Bertero; Michx. for
Michaux, to distinguish it from Micheli).

46A.4.  Given names or accessory designations serving to distinguish two botanists of the same
name should be abridged in the same way (Adr. Juss. for Adrien de Jussieu, Gaertner f. for
Gaertner filius, J. F. Gmelin for Johann Friedrich Gmelin, J. G. Gmelin for Johann Georg Gme-
lin, C. C. Gmelin for Carl Christian Gmelin, S. G. Gmelin for Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin, Müll. Arg.
for Jean Müller of Aargau).

46A.5.  When it is a well-established custom to abridge a name in another manner, it is advisable
to conform to it (L. for Linnaeus, DC. for Augustin-Pyramus de Candolle, St.-Hil. for Saint­
Hilaire, R. Br. for Robert Brown).

Recommendation 46B

46B.1.  In citing the author of the scientific name of a taxon, the romanization of the author’s
name(s) given in the original publication should normally be accepted. Where an author failed to
give a romanization, or where an author has at different times used different romanizations, then
the romanization known to be preferred by the author or that most frequently adopted by the
author should be accepted. In the absence of such information the author’s name should be ro-
manized in accordance with an internationally available standard.

46B.2.  Authors of scientific names whose personal names are not written in Roman letters should
romanize their names, preferably (but not necessarily) in accordance with an internationally
available standard and, as a matter of typographic convenience, without diacritical signs. Once
authors have selected the romanization of their personal names, they should use it consistently
thereafter. Whenever possible, authors should not permit editors or publishers to change the
romanization of their personal names.

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Citation 47-48

Recommendation 46C

46C.1.  When a name has been published jointly by two authors, the names of both should be cited,
linked by means of the word "et" or by an ampersand (&).

Ex. 1.  Didymopanax gleasonii Britton et Wilson (or Britton & Wilson).

46C.2.  When a name has been published jointly by more than two authors, the citation should be
restricted to that of the first one followed by "et al."

Ex. 2.  Lapeirousia erythrantha var. welwitschii (Baker) Geerinck, Lisowski, Malaisse & Symoens
(Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 105: 336. 1972) should be cited as L. erythrantha var. welwitschii
(Baker) Geerinck et al.

Recommendation 46D

46D.1.  Authors should cite their own names after each new name they publish; the expression
"nobis" (nob.) or a similar reference to themselves should be avoided.

Article 47

47.1.  An alteration of the diagnostic characters or of the circumscription of a
taxon without the exclusion of the type does not warrant the citation of the
name of an author other than the one who first published its name.

Examples:  see under Art. 51.

Recommendation 47A

47A.1.  When an alteration as mentioned in Art. 47 has been considerable, the nature of the
change may be indicated by adding such words, abbreviated where suitable, as "emendavit"
(emend.) (followed by the name of the author responsible for the change), "mutatis characteribus"
(mut. char.), "pro parte" (p. p.), "excluso genere" or "exclusis generibus" (excl. gen.), "exclusa
specie" or "exclusis speciebus" (excl. sp.), "exclusa varietate" or "exclusis varietatibus" (excl. var.).
"sensu amplo" (s. ampl.), "sensu lato" (s. l.), "sensu stricto" (s. str.), etc.

Ex. 1.  Phyllanthus L. emend. Müll. Arg.; Globularia cordifolia L. excl. var. (emend. Lam.).

Article 48

48.1.  When an author adopts an existing name but explicitly excludes its origi-
nal type, he is considered to have published a later homonym that must be
ascribed solely to him. Similarly, when an author who adopts a name refers to
an apparent basionym but explicitly excludes its type, he is considered to have
published a new name that must be ascribed solely to him. Explicit exclusion
can be effected by simultaneous explicit inclusion of the type in a different
taxon by the same author (see also Art. 59.6).

Ex. 1.  Sirodot (1872) placed the type of Lemanea Bory (1808) in Sacheria Sirodot (1872); hence
Lemanea, as treated by Sirodot (1872), is to be cited as Lemanea Sirodot non Bory and not as
Lemanea Bory emend. Sirodot.

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49-50 Citation

Ex. 2.  The name Amorphophallus campanulatus, published by Decaisne, was apparently based on
Arum campanulatum Roxb. However, the type of the latter was explicitly excluded by Decaisne,
and the name is to be cited as Amorphophallus campanulatus Decne., not as Amorphophallus
campanulatus
(Roxb.) Decne.

Note 1.  Misapplication of a new combination to a different taxon, but without explicit exclusion of
the type of the basionym, is dealt with under Arts. 55.2 and 56.2.

Note 2.  Retention of a name in a sense that excludes the type can be effected only by conservation
(see Art. 14.8).

Article 49

49.1.  When a genus or a taxon of lower rank is altered in rank but retains its
name or epithet, the author of the earlier, epithet-bringing legitimate name
(the author of the basionym) must be cited in parentheses, followed by the
name of the author who effected the alteration (the author of the new name).
The same holds when a taxon of lower rank than genus is transferred to an-
other genus or species, with or without alteration of rank.

Ex. 1.  Medicago polymorpha var. orbicularis L. when raised to the rank of species becomes Medi-
cago orbicularis
(L.) Bartal.

Ex. 2.  Anthyllis sect. Aspalathoides DC. raised to generic rank, retaining the epithet Aspalatho-
ides
as its name, is cited as Aspalathoides (DC.) K. Koch.

Ex. 3.  Cineraria sect. Eriopappus Dumort. (Pl. Belg. 65. 1827) when transferred to Tephroseris
(Reichenb.) Reichenb. is cited as Tephroseris sect. Eriopappus (Dumort.) Holub (Folia Geobot.
Phytotax. Bohem. 8: 173. 1973).

Ex. 4.  Cistus aegyptiacus L. when transferred to Helianthemum Miller is cited as Helianthemum
aegyptiacum
(L.) Miller.

Ex. 5.  Fumaria bulbosa var. solida L. (1753) was elevated to specific rank as F. solida (L.) Miller
(1771). The name of this species when transferred to Corydalis is to be cited as C. solida (L.)
Clairv. (1811), not C. solida (Miller) Clairv.

Ex. 6.  However, Pulsatilla montana var. serbica W. Zimmerm. (Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni
Veg. 61: 95. 1958), originally placed under P. montana subsp. australis (Heuffel) Zam., retains the
same author citation when placed under P. montana subsp. dacica Rummelsp. (see Art. 24.1) and
is not cited as var. serbica (W. Zimmerm.) Rummelsp. (Feddes Repert. 71: 29. 1965).

Ex. 7.  Salix subsect. Myrtilloides C. Schneider (Ill. Handb. Laubholzk. 1: 63. 1904), originally
placed under S. sect. Argenteae Koch, retains the same author citation when placed under S. sect.
Glaucae Pax and is not cited as S. subsect. Myrtilloides (C. Schneider) Dorn (Canad. J. Bot. 54:
2777. 1976).

Article 50

50.1.  When a taxon at the rank of species or below is transferred from the
non-hybrid category to the hybrid category of the same rank (Art. H.10.2), or
vice versa, the author citation remains unchanged but may be followed by an
indication in parentheses of the original category.

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Citation 50

Ex. 1.  Stachys ambigua Smith was published as the name of a species. If regarded as applying to a
hybrid, it may be cited as Stachys ×ambigua Smith (pro sp.).

Ex. 2.  The binary name Salix ×glaucops Andersson was published as the name of a hybrid. Later,
Rydberg (Bull. New York Bot. Gard. 1: 270. 1899) considered the taxon to be a species. If this view
is accepted, the name may be cited as Salix glaucops Andersson (pro hybr.).
 
 

SECTION 4. GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS ON CITATION

Recommendation 50A

50A.1.  In the citation of a name published as a synonym, the words "as synonym" or "pro syn."
should be added.

50A.2.  When an author has published as a synonym a manuscript name of another author, the
word "ex" should be used in citations to connect the names of the two authors (see also Art. 46.3).

Ex. 1.  Myrtus serratus, a manuscript name of Koenig published by Steudel as a synonym of Euge-
nia laurina
Willd., should be cited thus: Myrtus serratus Koenig ex Steudel, pro syn.

Recommendation 50B

50B.1.  In the citation of a nomen nudum, its status should be indicated by adding the words
"nomen nudum" or "nom. nud."

Ex. 1.  Carex bebbii Olney (Car. Bor.-Am. 2: 12. 1871), published without a diagnosis or descrip-
tion, should be cited as a nomen nudum.

Recommendation 50C

50C.1.  The citation of a later homonym should be followed by the name of the author of the
earlier homonym preceded by the word "non", preferably with the date of publication added. In
some instances it will be advisable to cite also any other homonyms, preceded by the word "nec".

Ex. 1.  Ulmus racemosa Thomas, Amer. J. Sci. Arts 19: 170 (1831), non Borkh. 1800; Lindera
Thunb., Nov. Gen. Pl. 64 (1783), non Adanson 1763; Bartlingia Brongn., Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 10:
373 (1827), non Reichenb. 1824 nec F. Muell. 1882.

Recommendation 50D

50D.1.  Misidentifications should not be included in synonymies but added after them. A misap-
plied name should be indicated by the words "auct. non" followed by the name of the original
author and the bibliographic reference of the misidentification.

Ex. 1.  Ficus stortophylla Warb. in Warb. & De Wild., Ann. Mus. Congo Belge, B, Bot. ser. 4, 1: 32
(1904). F. irumuensis De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 1: 341 (1922). F. exasperata auct. non Vahl: De Wild.
& T. Durand, Ann. Mus. Congo Belge, B, Bot. ser. 2, 1: 54 (1899); De Wild., Miss. Em. Laurent 26
(1905); T. Durand & H. Durand, Syll. Pl. Congol. 505 (1909).

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50 Citation

Recommendation 50E

50E.1.  If a generic or specific name is accepted as a nomen conservandum (see Art. 14 and App.
III) the abbreviation "nom. cons." should be added in a full citation.

Ex. 1.  Protea L., Mant. Pl. 187 (1771), nom. cons., non L. 1753; Combretum Loefl. (1758), nom.
cons. (syn. prius Grislea L. 1753).

50E.2.  If it is desirable to indicate the sanctioned status of the names of fungi adopted by Persoon
or Fries (see Art. 13.1(d)), ": Pers." or ": Fr." should be added to the citation.

Ex. 2.  Boletus piperatus Bull. : Fr.

Recommendation 50F

50F.1.  If a name is cited with alterations from the form as originally published, it is desirable that
in full citations the exact original form should be added, preferably between single or double
quotation marks.

Ex. 1.  Pyrus calleryana Decne. (Pyrus mairei H. Léveillé, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 12: 189.
1913, "Pirus").

Ex. 2.  Zanthoxylum cribrosum Sprengel, Syst. Veg. 1: 946 (1825), "Xanthoxylon". (Zanthoxylum
caribaeum
var. floridanum (Nutt.) A. Gray, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 23: 225. 1888, "Xanthoxylum").

Ex. 3.  Spathiphyllum solomonense Nicolson, Amer. J. Bot. 54: 496 (1967), "solomonensis".

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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Remodelling of taxa 51-52

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHAPTER V. RETENTION, CHOICE, AND REJECTION OF

NAMES AND EPITHETS
 
 

SECTION 1.   RETENTION OF NAMES OR EPITHETS WHEN TAXA

ARE REMODELLED OR DIVIDED

Article 51

51.1.  An alteration of the diagnostic characters or of the circumscription of a
taxon does not warrant a change in its name, except as may be required (a) by
transference of the taxon (Arts. 5456), or (b) by its union with another taxon
of the same rank (Arts. 57,58), or (c) by a change of its rank (Art. 60).

Ex. 1.  The genus Myosotis as revised by R. Brown differs from the original genus of Linnaeus, but
the generic name has not been changed, nor is a change allowable, since the type of Myosotis L.
remains in the genus; it is cited as Myosotis L. or as Myosotis L. emend. R. Br. (see Art. 47, Rec.
47A).

Ex. 2.  Various authors have united with Centaurea jacea L. one or two species which Linnaeus
had kept distinct; the taxon so constituted is called Centaurea jacea L. sensu amplo or Centaurea
jacea
L. emend. Cosson & Germ., emend. Vis., or emend. Godron, etc.; any new name for this
taxon, such as Centaurea vulgaris Godron, is superfluous and illegitimate.

51.2.  An exception to Art. 51.1 is made for the family name Papilionaceae (see
Art. 18.5).

Article 52

52.1.  When a genus is divided into two or more genera, the generic name, if
correct, must be retained for one of them. If a type was originally designated
the generic name must be retained for the genus including that type. If no type
has been designated, a type must be chosen (see Rec. 7B).

Ex. 1.  The genus Dicera Forster & Forster f. was divided by Rafinesque into the two genera Misi-
pus
and Skidanthera. This procedure is contrary to the rules: the name Dicera must be kept for
one of the genera, and it is now retained for that part of Dicera including the lectotype, D. dentata.

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53-54 Transference of taxa

Ex. 2.  Among the sections which have been recognized in the genus Aesculus L. are Aesculus sect.
Aesculus, sect. Pavia (Miller) Walp., sect. Macrothyrsus (Spach) K. Koch, and sect. Calothyrsus
(Spach) K. Koch, the last three of which were regarded as distinct genera by the authors cited in
parentheses. In the event of these four sections being treated as genera, the name Aesculus must
be kept for the first of them, which includes Aesculus hippocastanum L, the type of the generic
name.

Article 53

53.1.  When a species is divided into two or more species, the specific name, if
correct, must be retained for one of them. If a particular specimen, descrip-
tion, or figure was originally designated as the type, the specific name must be
retained for the species including that element. If no type has been designated,
a type must be chosen (see Rec. 7B).

Ex. 1.  Arabis beckwithii S. Watson (1887) was based on specimens which represented at least two
species in the opinion of Munz, who based A. shockleyi Munz (1932) on one of the specimens cited
by Watson, retaining the name A. beckwithii for the others (one of which may be designated as
lectotype of A. beckwithii).

Ex. 2.  Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus L (1753) was originally treated by Linnaeus as consisting of
two varieties: var. flava ("flavus") and var. fulva ("fulvus"). In 1762 he recognized these as distinct
species, calling them H. flava and H. fulva. The original specific epithet was reinstated for one of
these by Farwell (Amer. Midl. Naturalist 11: 51. 1928) and the two species are correctly named H.
lilioasphodelus
L. and H. fulva (L.) L.

53.2.  The same rule applies to infraspecific taxa, for example, to a subspecies
divided into two or more subspecies, or to a variety divided into two or more
varieties.

SECTION 2. RETENTION OF EPITHETS OF TAXA BELOW THE RANK OF

GENUS ON TRANSFERENCE TO ANOTHER GENUS OR SPECIES

Article 54

54.1.  When a subdivision of a genus is transferred to another genus or placed
under another generic name for the same genus without change of rank, the
epithet of its formerly correct name must be retained unless one of the fol-
lowing obstacles exists:

(a)  The resulting combination has been previously and validly published for a
       subdivision of a genus based on a different type;

(b)  The epithet of an earlier legitimate name of the same rank is available
       (but see Arts. 13.1(d), 58, 59);

(c)  Arts. 21 or 22 provide that another epithet be used.

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Transference of taxa 55

Ex. 1.  Saponaria sect. Vaccaria DC. when transferred to Gypsophila becomes Gypsophila sect.
Vaccaria (DC.) Godron.

Ex. 2.  Primula sect. Dionysiopsis Pax (1909) when transferred to the genus Dionysia becomes
Dionysia sect. Dionysiopsis (Pax) Melchior (1943); the name Dionysia sect. Ariadne Wendelbo
(1959), based on the same type, is not to be used.

Article 55

55.1.  When a species is transferred to another genus or placed under another
generic name for the same genus without change of rank, the epithet of its
formerly correct name must be retained unless one of the following obstacles
exists:

(a)  The resulting binary name is a later homonym (Art. 64) or a tautonym
       (Art. 23.4);

(b)  The epithet of an earlier legitimate specific name is available (but see
       Arts. 13.1(d), 58, 59).

Ex. 1.  Antirrhinum spurium L. (1753) when transferred to the genus Linaria must be called
Linaria spuria (L.) Miller (1768).

Ex. 2.  Spergula stricta Sw. (1799) when transferred to the genus Arenaria must be called Arenaria
uliginosa
Schleicher ex Schlechtendal (1808) because of the existence of the name Arenaria stricta
Michx. (1803), referring to a different species; but on further transfer to the genus Minuartia the
epithet stricta must be used and the species called Minuartia stricta (Sw.) Hiern (1899).

Ex. 3.  Conyza candida L. (1753) was illegitimately renamed Conyza limonifolia Smith (1813) and
Inula limonifolia Boiss. (1843). However, the Linnaean epithet must be retained and the correct
name of the species, in the genus Inula, is L. candida (L.) Cass. (1822).

Ex. 4.  When transferring Serratula chamaepeuce L. (1753) to his new genus Ptilostemon, Cassini
renamed the species P. muticus Cass. (1826, "muticum"). Lessing rightly reinstated the original
specific epithet, creating the combination Ptilostemon chamaepeuce (L.) Less. (1832).

Ex. 5.  Spartium biflorum Desf. (1798) when transferred to the genus Cytisus by Spach in 1849
could not be called C. biflorus, because this name had been previously and validly published for a
different species by L’Héritier in 1791; the name C. fontanesii given by Spach is therefore legiti-
mate.

Ex. 6.  Arum dracunculus L. (1753) when transferred to the genus Dracunculus was renamed
Dracunculus vulgaris Schott (1832), as use of the Linnaean epithet would create a tautonym.

Ex. 7.  Melissa calamintha L. (1753) when transferred to the genus Thymus becomes T. calamintha
(L.) Scop. (1772); placed in the genus Calamintha it may not be called C. calamintha (a tautonym)
but has been named C. officinalis Moench (1794). However, when C. officinalis is transferred to
the genus Satureja, the Linnaean epithet is again available and the name becomes S. calamin-
tha
(L.) Scheele (1843).

Ex. 8.  Cucubalus behen L. (1753) was legitimately renamed Behen vulgaris Moench (1794) to
avoid the tautonym Behen behen. If the species is transferred to the genus Silene, it may not retain
its original epithet because of the existence of a Silene behen L. (1753). Therefore, the substitute
name Silene cucubalus Wibel (1799) was created. However, the specific epithet vulgaris was still
available under Silene. It was rightly reinstated in the combination Silene vulgaris (Moench)
Garcke (1869).

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56-57 Union of taxa

55.2.  On transference of a specific epithet under another generic name, the
resulting combination must be retained for the species to which the type of the
basionym belongs, and attributed to the author who first published it, even
though it may have been applied erroneously to a different species (Art. 7.12; but
see Arts. 48.1 and 59.6).

Ex. 9.  Pinus mertensiana Bong. was transferred to the genus Tsuga by Carrière, who, however, as
is evident from his description, erroneously applied the new combination Tsuga mertensiana to
another species of Tsuga, namely T. heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. The combination Tsuga mertensiana
(Bong.) Carrière must not be applied to T. heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. but must be retained for
Pinus mertensiana Bong. when that species is placed in Tsuga; the citation in parentheses (under
Art. 49) of the name of the original author, Bongard, indicates the type of the name.

Article 56

56.1.  When an infraspecific taxon is transferred without change of rank to
another genus or species, the final epithet of its formerly correct name must be
retained unless one of the following obstacles exists:

(a)  The resulting ternary combination, with a different type, has been pre-
       viously and validly published for an infraspecific taxon of any rank;

(b)  The epithet of an earlier legitimate name at the same rank is available (but
       see Arts. 13.1(d), 58, 59);

(c)  Art. 26 provides that another epithet be used.

Ex. 1.  Helianthemum italicum var. micranthum Gren. & Godron (Fl. France 1: 171. 1847) when
transferred as a variety to H. penicillatum Thibaud ex Dunal retains its varietal epithet, becoming
H. penicillatum var. micranthum (Gren. & Godron) Grosser (in Engler. Pflanzenr. 14 (IV.193):
115. 1903).

56.2.  On transference of an infraspecific epithet under another specific name,
the resulting combination must be retained for the taxon to which the type of
the basionym belongs, and attributed to the author who first published it, even
though it may have been applied erroneously to a different taxon (Art. 7.12;
but see Arts. 48.1 and 59.6).

SECTION 3.  CHOICE OF NAMES WHEN TAXA OF THE SAME RANK ARE UNITED

Article 57

57.1.  When two or more taxa of the same rank are united, the earliest legiti-
mate name or (for taxa below the rank of genus) the final epithet of the earliest
legitimate name is retained, unless another epithet or a later name must be
accepted under the provisions of Arts. 13.1(d), 14, 16.1, 19.3, 22.1, 26.1, 27,
55.1, 58, or 59.

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57 Union of taxa

Ex. 1.  Schumann (in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. III, 6: 5. 1890), uniting the three genera
Sloanea L. (1753), Echinocarpus Blume (1825), and Phoenicosperma Miq. (1865), rightly adopted
the earliest of these three generic names, Sloanea L., for the resulting genus.

57.2.  The author who first unites taxa bearing names of equal priority must
choose one of them, unless an autonym is involved (see Art. 57.3). As soon as
that choice is effectively published (Arts. 29-31), the name thus chosen is
treated as having priority.

Ex. 2.  If the two genera Dentaria L. (1 May 1753) and Cardamine L. (1 May 1753) are united, the
resulting genus must be called Cardamine because that name was chosen by Crantz (Cl. Crucif.
Emend. 126. 1769), who was the first to unite the two genera.

Ex. 3.  R. Brown (in Tuckey, Narr. Exp. Congo 484. 1818) appears to have been the first to unite
Waltheria americana L. (1 May 1753) and W. indica L. (1 May 1753). He adopted the name W.
indica
for the combined species, and this name is accordingly to be retained.

Ex. 4.  Baillon (Adansonia 3: 162. 1863), when uniting for the first time Sclerocroton integerrimus
Hochst. (Flora 28: 85. 1845) and Sclerocroton reticulatus Hochst. (Flora 28: 85. 1845), adopted the
epithet integerrimus in the name of the combined taxon. Consequently this epithet is to be re-
tained irrespective of the generic name (Sclerocroton, Stillingia, Excoecaria, Sapium) with which it
is combined.

Ex. 5.  Linnaeus in 1753 simultaneously published the names Verbesina alba and V. prostrata.
Later (1771), he published Eclipta erecta, a superfluous name because V. alba is cited in syn-
onymy, and E. prostrata, based on V. prostrata. The first author to unite these taxa was Roxburgh
(Fl. Ind. 3: 438. 1832), who did so under the name Eclipta prostrata (L.) L., which therefore is to
be used if these taxa are united and placed in the genus Eclipta.

Ex. 6.  When the genera Entoloma (Fr. ex Rabenb.) P. Kummer (1871), Leptonia (Fr.) P. Kummer
(1871), Eccilia (Fr.) P. Kummer (1871), Nolanea (Fr.) P. Kummer (1871), and Claudopus Gillet
(1876) are united, one of the generic names simultaneously published by Kummer must be used
for the whole, as was done by Donk (Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg ser. 3, 18(1): 157. 1949) who
selected Entoloma. The name Rhodophyllus Quélet (1886), introduced to cover these combined
genera, is superfluous.

57.3.  An autonym is treated as having priority over the name or names of the
same date and rank that established it.

Note 1.  When the final epithet of an autonym is used in a new combination under the require-
ments of Art. 57.3, the basionym of that combination is the name from which the autonym is
derived.

Ex. 7.  Heracleum sibiricum L. (1753) includes H. sibiricum subsp. lecokii (Godron & Gren.)
Nyman (1879) and H. sibiricum subsp. sibiricum (1879) automatically established at the same time.
When H. sibiricum is included in H. sphondylium L. (1753) as a subspecies, the correct name for
the taxon is H. sphondylium subsp. sibiricum (L.) Simonkai (1887), not subsp. lecokii, whether or
not subsp. lecokii is treated as distinct.

Ex. 8.  The publication of Salix tristis var. microphylla Andersson (Salices Bor.-Amer. 21. 1858)
created the autonym S. tristis Aiton (1789) var. tristis. If S. tristis, including var. microphylla, is
recognized as a variety of S. humilis Marshall (1785), the correct name is S. humilis var. tristis
(Aiton) Griggs (Proc. Ohio Acad. Sci. 4: 301. 1905). However, if both varieties of S. tristis are
recognized as varieties of S. humilis, then the names S. humilis var. tristis and S. humilis var.
microphylla (Andersson) Fernald (Rhodora 48: 46.1946) are both used.

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58-59 Pleomorphic fungi

Ex. 9.  In the classification adopted by Rollins and Shaw, Lesquerella lasiocarpa (Hooker ex A.
Gray) S. Watson is composed of two subspecies, subsp. lasiocarpa (which includes the type of the
name of the species and is cited without an author) and subsp. berlandieri (A. Gray) Rollins & E.
Shaw. The latter subspecies is composed of two varieties. In this classification the correct name of
the variety which includes the type of subsp. berlandieri is L. lasiocarpa var. berlandieri (A. Gray)
Payson (1922), not L. lasiocarpa var. berlandieri (cited without an author) or L. lasiocarpa var.
hispida (S. Watson) Rollins & E. Shaw (1972), based on Synthlipsis berlandieri var. hispida S.
Watson (1882), since publication of the latter name established the autonym Synthlipsis berlan-
dieri
A. Gray var. berlandieri which, at varietal rank, is treated as having priority over var. hispida.

Recommendation 57A

57A.1.  Authors who have to choose between two generic names should note the following sugges-
tions:

(a)  Of two names of the same date, to prefer that which was first accompanied by the description
       of a species.

(b)  Of two names of the same date, both accompanied by descriptions of species, to prefer that
       which, when the author makes his choice, includes the larger number of species.

(c)  In cases of equality from these various points of view, to select the more appropriate name.

Article 58

58.1.  When a non-fossil taxon of plants, algae excepted, and a fossil (or subfos-
sil) taxon of the same rank are united, the correct name of the non-fossil taxon
is treated as having priority (see Pre.7 and Art. 13.3).

Ex. 1.  If Platycarya Siebold & Zucc. (1843), a non-fossil genus, and Petrophiloides Bowerbank
(1840), a fossil genus, are united, the name Platycarya is accepted for the combined genus, al-
though it is antedated by Petrophiloides.

Ex. 2.  The generic name Metasequoia Miki (1941) was based on the fossil type of M disticha
(Heer) Miki. After discovery of the non-fossil species M. glyptostroboides Hu & Cheng, conserva-
tion of Metasequoia Hu & Cheng (1948) as based on the non-fossil type was approved. Otherwise,
any new generic name based on M. glyptostroboides would have had to be treated as having
priority over Metasequoia Miki.

SECTION 4.  NAMES OF FUNGI WITH A PLEOMORPHIC LIFE CYCLE

Article 59

59.1.  In ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi (including Ustilaginales)
with mitotic asexual morphs (anamorphs) as well as a meiotic sexual morph
(teleomorph), the correct name covering the holomorph (i.e., the species in all
its morphs) is – except for lichen-forming fungi – the earliest legitimate name
typified by an element representing the teleomorph, i.e. the morph character-
ized by the production of asci/ascospores, basidia/basidiospores, teliospores, or
other basidium-bearing organs.

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Pleomorphic fungi 59

59.2.  For a binary name to qualify as a name of a holomorph, not only must its
type specimen be teleomorphic, but also the protologue must include a diagno-
sis or description of this morph (or be so phrased that the possibility of refer-
ence to the teleomorph cannot be excluded).

59.3.  If these requirements are not fulfilled, the name is that of a form-taxon
and is applicable only to the anamorph represented by its type, as described or
referred to in the protologue. The accepted taxonomic disposition of the type
of the name determines the application of the name, no matter whether the
genus to which a subordinate taxon is assigned by the author(s) is holomorphic
or anamorphic.

59.4.  The priority of names of holomorphs at any rank is not affected by the
earlier publication of names of anamorphs judged to be correlated morphs of
the holomorph.

59.5.  The provisions of this article shall not be construed as preventing the
publication and use of binary names for form-taxa when it is thought necessary
or desirable to refer to anamorphs alone.

Note 1.  When not already available, specific or infraspecific names for anamorphs may be pro-
posed at the time of publication of the name for the holomorphic fungus or later. The epithets
may, if desired, be identical, as long as they are not in homonymous combinations.

59.6.  As long as there is direct and unambiguous evidence for the deliberate
introduction of a new morph judged by the author(s) to be correlated with the
morph typifying a purported basionym, and this evidence is strengthened by
fulfilment of all requirements in Arts. 32-45 for valid publication of a name of a
new taxon, any indication such as "comb. nov." or "nom. nov." is regarded as a
formal error, and the name introduced is treated as that of a new taxon, and
attributed solely to the author(s) thereof. When only the requirements for valid
publication of a new combination (Arts. 33, 34) have been fulfilled, the name is
accepted as such and based, in accordance with Art. 55, on the type of the
declared or implicit basionym.

Ex. 1.  The name Penicillium brefeldianum Dodge, based on teleomorphic and anamorphic mate-
rial, is a valid and legitimate name of a holomorph, in spite of the attribution of the species to a
form-genus. It is legitimately combined in a holomorphic genus as Eupenicillium brefeldianum
(Dodge) Stolk & Scott. P. brefeldianum is not available for use in a restricted sense for the ana-
morph alone.

Ex. 2.  The name Ravenelia cubensis Arthur & Johnston, based on a specimen bearing only uredi-
nia (an anamorph), is a valid and legitimate name of an anamorph, in spite of the attribution of the
species to a holomorphic genus. It is legitimately combined in a form-genus as Uredo cubensis
(Arthur & Johnston) Cummins. R. cubensis is not available for use inclusive of the teleomorph.

Ex. 3.  Mycosphaerella aleuritidis was published as "(Miyake) Ou comb. nov., syn. Cercospora
aleuritidis
Miyake" but with a Latin diagnosis of the teleomorph. The indication "comb. nov." is
taken as a formal error, and M. aleuritidis Ou is accepted as a validly published new specific name
for the holomorph, typified by the teleomorphic material described by Ou.

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60-61 Change of rank

Ex. 4.  Corticium microsclerotium was published in 1939 as "(Matz) Weber, comb. nov., syn. Rhiz-
octonia microsclerotia
Matz" with a description, only in English, of the teleomorph. Because of
Art. 36, this may not be considered as the valid publication of the name of a new species, and so C.
microsclerotium
(Matz) Weber must be considered a validly published and legitimate new combi-
nation based on the specimen of the anamorph that typifies its basionym. C microsclerotium
Weber, as published in 1951 with a Latin description and a teleomorphic type, is an illegitimate
later homonym of the combination C. microsclerotium (Matz) Weber (1939), typified by an ana-
morph.

Ex. 5.  Hypomyces chrysospermus Tul. (Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. ser. 4, 13: 16. 1860), presented as the
name of a holomorph without the indication "comb. nov." but with explicit reference to Mucor
chrysospermus
(Bull.) Bull. and Sepedonium chrysospermum (Bull.) Fr., which are names of its
anamorph, is not to be considered as a new combination but as the name of a newly described
species, with a teleomorphic type.

Recommendation 59A

59A.1.  When a new morph of a fungus is described, it should be published either as a new taxon
(e.g., gen. nov., sp. nov., var. nov.) whose name has a teleomorphic type, or as a new anamorph
(anam. nov.) whose name has an anamorphic type.

59A.2.  When in naming a new morph of a fungus the epithet of the name of a different, earlier
described morph of the same fungus is used, the new name should be designated as the name of a
new taxon or anamorph, as the case may be, but not as a new combination based on the earlier
name.

SECTION 5.  CHOICE OF NAMES WHEN THE RANK OF A TAXON IS CHANGED

Article 60

60.1.  In no case does a name have priority outside its own rank (but see Art.
64.4).

Ex. 1.  Campanula sect. Campanopsis R Br. (Prodr. 561. 1810) as a genus is called Wahlenbergia
Roth (1821), a name conserved against the taxonomic synonym Cervicina Delile (1813), and not
Campanopsis (R Br.) Kuntze (1891).

Ex. 2.  Magnolia virginiana var. foetida L. (1753) when raised to specific rank is called Magnolia
grandiflora
L. (1759), not M. foetida (L.) Sarg. (1889).

Ex. 3.  Lythrum intermedium Ledeb. (1822) when treated as a variety of Lythrum salicaria L.
(1753) has been called L. salicaria var. glabrum Ledeb. (Fl. Ross. 2: 127. 1843), and hence may not
be called L. salicaria var. intermedium (Ledeb.) Koehne (Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 1: 327. 1881).

Article 61

61.1.  When a taxon at the rank of family or below is changed to another such
rank, the correct name is the earliest legitimate one available in the new rank.

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Rejection 62-63

Recommendation 61A

61A.1.  When a family or subdivision of a family is changed in rank and no earlier legitimate name
is available in the new rank, the name should be retained, and only its termination (-aceae, -oideae,
-eae, -inae) altered, unless the resulting name would be a later homonym.

Ex. 1.  The subtribe Drypetinae Pax (1890) (Euphorbiaceae) when raised to the rank of tribe was
named Drypeteae (Pax) Hurusawa (1954); the subtribe Antidesmatinae Pax (1890) (Euphorbia-
ceae
) when raised to the rank of subfamily was named Antidesmatoideae (Pax) Hurusawa (1954).

61A.2.  When a section or a subgenus is raised in rank to a genus, or the inverse change occurs, the
original name or epithet should be retained unless the resulting name would be contrary to this
Code.

61A.3.  When an infraspecific taxon is raised in rank to a species, or the inverse change occurs, the
original epithet should be retained unless the resulting combination would be contrary to this
Code.

61A.4.  When an infraspecific taxon is changed in rank within the species, the original epithet
should be retained unless the resulting combination would be contrary to this Code.

SECTION 6.  REJECTION OF NAMES AND EPITHETS

Article 62

62.1.  An epithet or a legitimate name must not be rejected merely because it is
inappropriate or disagreeable, or because another is preferable or better
known, or because it has lost its original meaning, or (in pleomorphic fungi
with names governed by Art. 59) because the generic name does not accord
with the morph represented by its type.

Ex. 1.  The following changes are contrary to the rule: Staphylea to Staphylis, Tamus to Thamnos,
Thamnus
, or Tamnus, Mentha to Minthe, Tillaea to Tillia, Vincetoxicum to Alexitoxicum; and
Orobanche rapum to O. sarothamnophyta, O. columbariae to O. columbarihaerens, O. artemisiae to
O. artemisiepiphyta. All these modifications are to be rejected.

Ex. 2.  Ardisia quinquegona Blume (1825) is not to be changed to A. pentagona A. DC. (1834),
although the specific epithet quinquegona is a hybrid word (Latin and Greek) (see Rec. 23B.1(c)).

Ex. 3.  The name Scilla peruviana L. is not to be rejected merely because the species does not grow
in Peru.

Ex. 4.  The name Petrosimonia oppositifolia (Pallas) Litv., based on Polycncmum oppositifolium
Pallas, is not to be rejected merely because the species has leaves only partly opposite, and partly
alternate, although there is another closely related species, Petrosimonia brachiata (Pallas) Bunge,
having all its leaves opposite.

Ex. 5.  Richardia L. is not to be changed to Richardsonia, as was done by Kunth, although the
name was originally dedicated to the British botanist, Richardson.

Article 63

63.1.  A name, unless conserved (Art. 14) or sanctioned under Art. 13.1(d), is
illegitimate and is to be rejected if it was nomenclaturally superfluous when

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63 Rejection

published, i.e. if the taxon to which it was applied, as circumscribed by its
author, definitely included the holotype or all syntypes or the previously desig-
nated lectotype of a name which ought to have been adopted, or whose epithet
ought to have been adopted, under the rules (but see Art. 63.3).

Ex. 1.  The generic name Cainito Adanson (1763) is illegitimate because it was a superfluous name
for Chrysophyllum L. (1753) which Adanson cited as a synonym.

Ex. 2.  Chrysophylum sericeum Salisb. (1796) is illegitimate, being a superfluous name for
C. cainito L. (1753), which Salisbury cited as a synonym.

Ex. 3.  On the other hand, Salix myrsinifolia Salisb. (1796) is legitimate, being explicitly based upon
S. myrsinites of Hoffmann (Hist. Salic. Ill. 71. 1787), a misapplication of the name S. myrsinites L.

Ex. 4.  Picea excelsa Link is illegitimate because it is based on Pinus excelsa Lam. (1778), a super-
fluous name for Pinus abies L. (1753). Under Picea the proper name is Picea abies (L.) H. Kar-
sten.

Ex. 5.  On the other hand, Cucubalus latifolius Miller and C. angustifolius Miller (1768) are not
illegitimate names, although these species are now united with the species previously named C.
behen
L. (1753): C. latifolius Miller and C. angustifolius Miller as circumscribed by Miller did not
include the type of C. behen L., which name he adopted for another independent species.

Note 1.  The inclusion, with an expression of doubt, of an element in a new taxon, e.g. the citation
of a name with a question mark, does not make the name of the new taxon nomenclaturally super-
fluous.

Ex. 6.  The protologue of Blandfordia grandiflora R Br. (1810) includes, in synonymy, "Aletris
punicea. Labill. nov. holl. 1. p. 85. t. 111 ?", indicating that the new species might be the same as
Aletris punicea previously published by Labillardière (1805). Blandfordia grandiflora is neverthe-
less a legitimate name.

Note 2.  The inclusion, in a new taxon, of an element that was subsequently designated as the
lectotype of a name which, so typified, ought to have been adopted, or whose epithet ought to have
been adopted, does not in itself make the name of the new taxon illegitimate.

63.2.  The inclusion of a type (see Art. 7) is here understood to mean the cita-
tion of the type specimen, the citation of an illustration of the type specimen,
the citation of the type of a name, or the citation of the name itself unless the
type is at the same time excluded either explicitly or by implication.

Ex. 7.  Explicit exclusion of type: When publishing the name Galium tricornutum, Dandy (Wat-
sonia 4: 47. 1957) cited G. tricorne Stokes (1787) pro parte as a synonym, but explicitly ex-
cluded the type of the latter name.

Ex. 8.  Exclusion of type by implication: Cedrus Duhamel (1755) is a legitimate name even though
Juniperus L. was cited as a synonym; only some of the species of Juniperus L were included in
Cedrus by Duhamel, and the differences between the two genera were discussed, Juniperus (inclu-
ding the type of its name) being recognized in the same work as an independent genus.

Ex. 9.  Tmesipteris elongata Dangeard (Botaniste 2: 213. 1891) was published as a new species but
Psilotum truncatum R. Br. was cited as a synonym. However, on the following page (214), T.
truncata
(R. Br.) Desv. is recognized as a different species and on p. 216 the two are distinguished
in a key, thus showing that the meaning of the cited synonym was either "P. truncatum R. Br. pro
parte" or "P. truncatum auct. non R. Br."

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Rejection 64

Ex. 10.  Solanum torvum Sw. (Prodr. 47.1788) was published with a new diagnosis but S. indicum
L. (1753) was cited as a synonym. In accord with the practice in his Prodromus, Swartz indicated
where the species was to be inserted in the latest edition [14, Murray] of the Systema Vegetabi-
lium. S. torvum was to be inserted between species 26 (S. insanum) and 27 (S. ferox); the num-
ber of S. indicum in this edition of the Systema is 32. S. torvum is thus a legitimate name; the type
of S. indicum is excluded by implication.

63.3.  A name that was nomenclaturally superfluous when published is not
illegitimate if its basionym is legitimate, or if it is based on the stem of a legiti-
mate generic name. When published it is incorrect, but it may become correct
later.

Ex. 11.  Chloris radiata (L.) Sw. (1788), based on Agrostis radiata L (1759), was nomenc1aturally
superfluous when published, since Swartz also cited Andropogon fasciculatus L. (1753) as a syn-
onym. It is, bowever, the correct name in the genus Chloris for Agrostis radiata when Andropogon
fasciculatus
is treated as a different species, as was done by Hackel (in A. DC. & C. DC., Monogr.
Phan. 6: 177. 1889).

Ex. 12.  The generic name Hordelymus (Jessen) Jessen (1885), based on the legitimate Hordeum
subg. Hordelymus Jessen (Deutschl. Gräser 202. 1863), was superfluous when published because
its type, Elymus europaeus L., is also the type of Cuviera Koeler (1802). Cuviera Koeler has since
been rejected in favour of its later homonym Cuviera DC., and Hordelymus (Jessen) Jessen can
now be used as a correct name for the segregate genus containing Elymus europaeus L.

Note 3.  In no case does a statement of parentage accompanying the publication of a name for a
hybrid make the name superfluous (see Art. H.5).

Ex. 13.  The name Polypodium ×shivasiae Rothm. (1962) was proposed for hybrids between P.
australe
and P. vulgare subsp. prionodes, while at the same time the author accepted P. ×font-
queri
Rothm. (1936) for hybrids between P. australe and P. vulgare subsp. vulgare. Under Art.
H.4.1, P. ×shivasiae is a synonym of P. ×font-queri; nevertheless, it is not a superfluous name.

Article 64

64.1.  A name, unless conserved (Art. 14) or sanctioned under Art. 13.1(d), is
illegitimate if it is a later homonym, that is, if it is spelled exactly like a name
based on a different type that was previously and validly published for a taxon
of the same rank.

Note 1.  Even if the earlier homonym is illegitimate, or is generally treated as a synonym on taxo-
nomic grounds, the later homonym must be rejected.

Ex. 1.  The name Tapeinanthus Boiss. ex Bentham (1848), given to a genus of Labiatae, is a later
homonym of Tapeinanthus Herbert (1837), a name previously and validly published for a genus of
Amaryllidaceae. Tapeinanthus Boiss. ex Bentham is therefore rejected. It was renamed Thuspei-
nanta
by T. Durand (1888).

Ex. 2.  The name Amblyanthera Müll. Arg. (1860) is a later homonym of the validly published
Amblyanthera Blume (1849) and is therefore rejected, although Amblyanthera Blume is now
considered to be a synonym of Osbeckia L. (1753).

Ex. 3.  The name Torreya Arnott (1838) is a nomen conservandum and is therefore not to be
rejected because of the existence of the earlier homonym Torreya Raf. (1818).

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64 Rejection

Ex. 4.  Astragalus rhizanthus Boiss. (1843) is a later homonym of the validly published name Astra-
galus rhizanthus
Royle (1835) and it is therefore rejected, as was done by Boissier in 1849, who
renamed it A. cariensis.

64.2.  A sanctioned name is illegitimate if it is a later homonym of another
sanctioned name (see also Art. 14 Note 2).

64.3.  When two or more generic, specific, or infraspecific names based on
different types are so similar that they are likely to be confused¹ (because
they are applied to related taxa or for any other reason) they are to be treated
as homonyms.

Ex. 5.  Names treated as homonyms: Astrostemma Bentham and Asterostemma Decne.; Pleuripe-
talum
Hooker and Pleuropetalum T. Durand; Eschweilera DC. and Eschweileria Boerl.; Skytan-
thus
Meyen and Scytanthus Hooker.

Ex. 6.  The three generic names Bradlea Adanson, Bradleja Banks ex Gaertner, and Braddleya
Vell., all commemorating Richard Bradley, are treated as homonyms because only one can be used
without serious risk of confusion.

Ex. 7.  Kadalia Raf. and Kadali Adanson (both Melastomataceae) are treated as homonyms
(Taxon 15: 287. 1966); Acanthoica Lohmann and Acanthoeca W. Ellis (both flagellates) are
sufficiently alike to be considered homonyms (Taxon 22: 313. 1973); Solanum saltiense S. L. Moore
and S. saltense (Bitter) C. Morton should be treated as homonyms (Taxon 22: 153. 1973).

Ex. 8.  Epithets so similar that they are likely to be confused if combined under the same generic or
specific name: chinensis and sinensis; ceylanica and zeylanica; napaulensis, nepalensis, and nipa-
lensis; polyanthemos
and polyanthemus; macrostachys and macrostachyus; heteropus and hetero-
podus; poikilantha
and poikilanthes; pteroides and pteroideus; trinervis and trinervius; macrocar-
pon
and macrocarpum; trachycaulum and trachycaulon.

Ex. 9.  Names not likely to be confused: Rubia L. and Rubus L; Monochaete Doell and Mono-
chaetum
(DC.) Naudin; Peponia Grev. and Peponium Engler; Iria (Pers.) Hedwig and Iris L.;
Desmostachys Miers and Desmostachya (Stapf) Stapf; Symphyostemon Miers and Symphostemon
Hiern; Gerrardina Oliver and Gerardiina Engler; Durvillaea Bory and Urvillea Kunth; Pelto-
phorus
Desv. (Gramineae) and Peltophorum (Vogel) Bentham (Leguminosae); Senecio napaei-
folius
(DC.) Schultz-Bip. and S. napifolius MacOwan (the epithets being derived respectively from
Napaea and Napus); Lysimachia hemsleyana Oliver and L hemsleyi Franchet (see, however, Rec.

23A.2); Euphorbia peplis L. and E peplus L.; Acanthococcus Lagerh., an alga, and Acanthococos
Barb. Rodr., a palm (see Taxon 18: 735. 1969).

Ex. 10.  Names ruled (by the Berlin Congress, 1987) as not likely to be confused: Cathayeia Ohwi
(1931) and Cathaya Chun & Kuang (1962), for which the General Committee, upon unanimous
advice from the Committee for Spermatophyta, noted that Cathayeia (Flacourtiaceae) is a nomen-
clatural synonym of Idesia Maxim. (1866), nom. cons., and hence cannot be used, that even if used
it is unlikely to appear in the same context as Cathaya (fossil Pinaceae), and that the two names
have a different number of syllables (Taxon 36: 429. 1987); Cristella Pat. (1887; Fungi) and
Christella H. Léveillé (1915; Pteridophyta), which were regarded by the Committee for Fungi and
Lichens, by the Committee for Pteridophyta and, upon their advice, by the General Committee
(Taxon 35: 551. 1986) not to be confusable since the older name is in disuse for taxonomic reasons,
since the taxa are not closely related, and since the etymology of the names is different.

——————

1)   When it is doubtful whether names are sufficiently alike to be confused, a request for a
       decision may be submitted to the General Committee (see Division III) which will refer it for
       examination to the committee or committees for the appropriate taxonomic group or groups.
       A recommendation may then be put forward to an International Botanical Congress, and, if
       ratified, will become a binding decision (see Ex. 10).

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Rejection 65

Ex. 11.  Names conserved against earlier names treated as homonyms (see App. III): Lyngbya
Gomont (vs. Lyngbyea Sommerf.); Columellia Ruiz & Pavón (vs. Columella Lour.), both comme-
morating Columella, the Roman writer on agriculture; Cephalotus Labill. (vs. Cephalotos Adan-
son); Simarouba Aublet (vs. Simaruba Boehmer).

64.4.  The names of two subdivisions of the same genus, or of two infraspecific
taxa within the same species, even if they are of different rank, are treated as
homonyms if they have the same epithet and are not based on the same type.
The same epithet may be used for subdivisions of different genera, and for
infraspecific taxa within different species.

Ex. 12.  Verbascum sect. Aulacosperma Murb. (1933) is allowed, although there was already a
Celsia sect. Aulacospermae Murb. (1926). This, however, is not an example to be followed, since it
is contrary to Rec. 21B.2).

Ex. 13.  The names Andropogon sorghum subsp. halepensis (L.) Hackel and A. sorghum var.
halepensis (L.) Hackel (in A. DC & C.DC., Monogr. Phan. 6: 502. 1889) are legitimate, since both
have the same type and the epithet may be repeated under Rec. 26A.1.

Ex. 14.  Anagallis arvensis var. caerulea (L.) Gouan (Fl. Monsp. 30. 1765), based on A. caerulea L.
(1759), makes illegitimate the combination A. arvensis subsp. caerulea Hartman (Sv. Norsk Exc.-
F1. 32.1846), based on the later homonym A. caerulea Schreber (1771).

64.5.  When two or more homonyms have equal priority, the first of them that
is adopted in an effectively published text (Arts. 29-31) by an author who
simultaneously rejects the other(s) is treated as having priority. Likewise, if an
author in an effectively published text substitutes other names for all but one of
these homonyms, the homonym for the taxon that is not renamed is treated as
having priority.

Ex. 15.  Linnaeus simultaneously published both Mimosa 10 cinerea (Sp. Pl. 517. 1753) and
Mimosa 25 cinerea (Sp. Pl. 520. 1753). In 1759, he renamed species 10 Mimosa cineraria and
retained the name Mimosa cincrea for species 25; Mimosa cinerea is thus a legitimate name for
species 25.

Ex. 16.  Rouy & Foucaud (Fl. France 2: 30. 1895) published the name Erysimum hieraciifolium var.
longisiliquum, with two different types, for two different taxa under different subspecies. Only one
of these names can be maintained.

Article 65

65.1.  Consideration of homonymy does not extend to the names of taxa not
treated as plants, except as stated below:

(a)  Later homonyms of the names of taxa once treated as plants are illegi-
      timate, even though the taxa have been reassigned to a different group of
      organisms to which this Code does not apply.

(b)  A name originally published for a taxon other than a plant, even if valid-
      ly published under Arts. 32-45 of this Code, is illegitimate if it becomes a
      homonym of a plant name when the taxon to which it applies is first
      treated as a plant (see also Art. 45.4).
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66-69 Rejection

Note 1.  The International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria provides that a bacterial name is
illegitimate if it is a later homonym of a name of a taxon of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, or
viruses.

Article 66

66.1.  [Article 66, dealing with illegitimate names of subdivisions of genera, was
deleted by the Berlin Congress, 1987.]

Article 67

67.1.  [Article 67, dealing with illegitimate specific and infraspecific names, was
deleted by the Berlin Congress, 1987.]

Article 68

68.1.  A specific name is not illegitimate merely because its epithet was ori-
ginally combined with an illegitimate generic name, but is to be taken into
consideration for purposes of priority if the epithet and the corresponding
combination are in other respects in accordance with the rules.

Ex. 1.  Agathophyllum A. L. Juss. (1789) is an illegitimate name, being a superfluous substitute for
Ravensara Sonn. (1782). Nevertheless the name A. neesianum Blume (1851) is legitimate. Because
Meisner (1864) cited A. neesianum as a synonym of his new Mespilodaphne mauritiana but did not
adopt the epithet neesiana, M. mauritiana is a superfluous name and hence illegitimate.

68.2.  An infraspecific name, autonyms excepted (Art. 26.1), may be legitimate
even if its final epithet was originally placed under an illegitimate name.

68.3.  The names of species and of subdivisions of genera assigned to genera
whose names are conserved or sanctioned later homonyms, and which had
earlier been assigned to the genera under the rejected homonyms, are legiti-
mate under the conserved or sanctioned names without change of authorship
or date if there is no other obstacle under the rules.

Ex. 2.  Alpinia languas J. F. Gmelin (1791) and Alpinia galanga (L) Willd. (1797) are to be accep-
ted although Alpinia L. (1753), to which they were assigned by their authors, is rejected and the
genus in which they are now placed is Alpinia Roxb. (1810), nom. cons.

Article 69

69.1.  A name may be ruled as rejected if it has been widely and persistently
used for a taxon or taxa not including its type. A name thus rejected, or its
basionym if it has one, is placed on a list of nomina rejicienda (Appendix IV).
Along with the listed names, all combinations based on them are similarly
rejected, and none is to be used.

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Rejection 70-72

69.2.  The list of rejected names will remain permanently open for additions
and changes. Any proposal of an additional name must be accompanied by a
detailed statement of the cases both for and against its rejection. Such pro-
posals must be submitted to the General Committee (see Division III), which
will refer them for examination to the committees for the various taxonomic
groups (see also Art. 15 and Rec. 15A).

69.3.  A name of a genus or species that has been widely and persistently used
for a taxon or taxa not including its type and would, but for Art. 69.4, be the
correct name of another taxon may also be conserved or rejected under Art.
14¹.

Note 1.  The name proposed for conservation can be either the name that has been misapplied or a
later homonym or synonym against which the misapplied name is rejected.

69.4.  A name that has been widely and persistently used for a taxon or taxa not
including its type is not to be used in a sense that conflicts with current usage
unless and until a proposal to deal with it under Art. 14.1 or 69.1 has been
submitted and rejected.

Article 70

70.1.  [Article 70, dealing with discordant elements, was deleted by the Leningrad
Congress, 1975.]

Article 71

71.1.  [Article 71, dealing with monstrosities, was deleted by the Leningrad Congress,
1975.]

Article 72

72.1.  A name rejected under Arts. 63-65 or 69 is replaced by the name that has
priority (Art. 11) in the rank concerned. If none exists in any rank a new name
must be chosen: (a) the taxon may be treated as new and another name pub-

lished for it, or (b) if the illegitimate name is a later homonym, an avowed
substitute (nomen novum) based on the same type as the rejected name may
be published for it. If a name is available in another rank, one of the above
alternatives may be chosen, or (c) a new combination, based on the name in
the other rank, may be published.

——————

1)   The Berlin Congress (1987) ruled that names of genera and species previously rejected, or
       recommended for rejection, under Art. 69 are to be reconsidered by the Nomenclature Com-
       mittees concerned which may, when appropriate, recommend conservation of the name that
       will best serve stability. Such names are to be listed in the appropriate Appendix of the Code.

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72 Rejection

72.2.  Similar action is to be taken if transfer of an epithet of a legitimate name
would result in a combination that cannot be validly published under Arts. 21.3
or 23.4.

Ex. 1.  Linum radiola L. (1753) when transferred to the genus Radiola may not be named Radiola
radiola
(L.) H. Karsten (1882), as that combination is invalid (see Arts. 23.4 and 32.1(b)). The next
oldest name, L multiflorum Lam. (1779), is illegitimate, being a superfluous name for L. radiola
L. Under Radiola, the species has been given the legitimate name R. linoides Roth (1788).

Note 1.  When a new epithet is required, an author may adopt an epithet previously given to the
taxon in an illegitimate name if there is no obstacle to its employment in the new position or sense;
the resultant combination is treated as the name of a new taxon or as a nomen novum, as the case
may be.

Ex. 2.  The name Talinum polyandrum Hooker (1855) is illegitimate, being a later homonym of T.
polyandrum
Ruiz & Pavón (1798). When Bentham, in 1863, transferred T. polyandrum Hooker to
Calandrinia, he called it Calandrinia polyandra. This name is treated as having priority from 1863,
and should be cited as Calandrinia polyandra Bentham, not C. polyandra (Hooker) Bentham.

Ex. 3.  Cenomyce ecmocyna Achar. (1810) is a superfluous name for Lichen gracilis L. (1753), and
so is Scyphophora ecmocyna Gray (1821), the type of L. gracilis still being included. However,
when proposing the combination Cladonia ecmocyna, Leighton (1866) explicitly excluded that type
and thereby published a new, legitimate name, Cladonia ecmocyna Leighton.

Recommendation 72A

72A.1.  Authors should avoid adoption of the epithet of an illegitimate name previously published
for the same taxon.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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Orthography 73

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

CHAPTER VI. ORTHOGRAPHY OF NAMES AND EPITHETS AND

GENDER OF GENERIC NAMES
 
 

SECTION 1. ORTHOGRAPHY OF NAMES AND EPITHETS

Article 73

73.1.  The original spelling of a name or epithet is to be retained, except for the
correction of typographic or orthographic errors and the standardizations
imposed by Arts. 73.8 (compounding forms), 73.9 (hyphens), and 73.10 (ter-
minations: see also Art. 32.5).

Ex. 1.  Retention of original spelling: The generic names Mesembryanthemum L. (1753) and
Amaranthus L. (1753) were deliberately so spelled by Linnaeus and the spelling is not to be
altered to Mesembrianthemum and Amarantus respectively, although these latter forms are
philologically preferable (see Bull. Misc. Inform. 1928: 113, 287). – Phoradendron Nutt. is not to
be altered to Phoradendrum. – Triaspis mozambica Adr. Juss. is not to be altered to T. mossam-
bica
, as in Engler (Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C: 232. 1895). – Alyxia ceylanica Wight is not to be
altered to A. zeylanica, as in Trimen (Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 3: 127. 1895). – Fagus sylvatica L. is not to
be altered to F. silvatica. The classical spelling silvatica is recommended for adoption in the case of
a new name (Rec. 73E), but the mediaeval spelling sylvatica is not treated as an orthographic
error. – Scirpus cespitosus L. is not to be altered to S. caespitosus.

Ex. 2.  Typographic errors: Globba brachycarpa Baker (1890) and Hetaeria alba Ridley (1896) are
typographic errors for Globba trachycarpa Baker and Hetaeria alta Ridley respectively (see J. Bot.
59: 349. 1921). – Thevetia nereifolia Adr. Juss. ex Steudel is an obvious typographic error for T.
neriifolia
.

Ex. 3.  Orthographic error: Gluta benghas L. (1771), being an orthographic error for G. renghas,
should be cited as G. renghas L., as has been done by Engler (in A. DC. & C. DC., Monogr. Phan.
4: 225. 1883); the vernacular name used as a specific epithet by Linnaeus is "Renghas", not "Ben-
ghas".

Note 1.  Art. 14.10 provides for the conservation of an altered spelling of a generic name.

Ex. 4.  Bougainvillea (see Appendix IIIA, Spermatophyta, no. 2350).

73.2.  The words "original spelling" in this Article mean the spelling employed
when the name was validly published. They do not refer to the use of an initial
capital or small letter, this being a matter of typography (see Arts. 20.1 and
21.2, Rec. 73F).

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73 Orthography

73.3.  The liberty of correcting a name is to be used with reserve, especially if
the change affects the first syllable and, above all, the first letter of the name.

Ex. 5.  The spelling of the generic name Lespedeza is not to be altered, although it commemorates
Vicente Manuel de Céspedes (see Rhodora 36: 130-132, 390-392. 1934). Cereus jamacaru DC.
may not be altered to C. mandacaru, even if jamacaru is believed to be a corruption of the vernacu-
lar name "mandacaru".

73.4.  The letters w and y, foreign to classical Latin, and k, rare in that lan-
guage, are permissible in Latin plant names. Other letters and ligatures foreign
to classical Latin that may appear in Latin plant names, such as the German ß
(double s), are to be transcribed.

73.5.  When a name or epithet has been published in a work where the letters
u, v or i, j are used interchangeably or in any other way incompatible with
modern practices (one of those letters is not used or only in capitals), those
letters should be transcribed in conformity with modern botanical usage.

Ex. 6.  Uffenbachia Fabr., not Vffenbachia; Taraxacum Zinn, not Taraxacvm; Curculigo Gaertner,
not Cvrcvligo.

Ex. 7.  Geastrum hygrometricvm Pers. and Vredo pvstvlata Pers. (1801) should be written respec-
tively Geastrum hygrometricum and Uredo pustulata.

Ex. 8.  Bromus iaponicus Thunb. (1784) should be written Bromus japonicus.

73.6.  Diacritical signs are not used in Latin plant names. In names (either new
or old) drawn from words in which such signs appear, the signs are to be sup-
pressed with the necessary transcription of the letters so modified; for example
ä, ö, ü become respectively ae, oe, ue; é, è, ê become e, or sometimes ae; ñ

becomes n; ø becomes oe; å becomes ao. The diaeresis, indicating that a vowel
is to be pronounced separately from the preceding vowel (as in Cephaëlis,
Isoëtes), and the ligatures -æ- and -œ- indicating that the letters are to be
pronounced together (Arisæma, Schœnus), are permissible.

73.7.  When changes made in orthography by earlier authors who adopt per-
sonal, geographic, or vernacular names in nomenclature are intentional latin-
izations, they are to be preserved, except for terminations covered by Art.
73.10.

Ex. 9.  Valantia L. (1753), Gleditsia L. (1753), and Clutia L. (1753), commemorating Vaillant,
Gleditsch, and Cluyt respectively, are not to be altered to Vaillantia, Gleditschia, and Cluytia;
Linnaeus latinized the names of these botanists deliberately as "Valantius", "Gleditsius", and
"Clutius".

Ex. 10.  Zygophyllum billardierii DC. was named for J. J. H. de Labillardière (de la Billardière).
The intended latinization is "Billardierius" (in nominative), but that termination is not acceptable
under Art. 73.10 and the name is correctly spelled Z. billardierei DC.

73.8.  The use of a compounding form contrary to Rec. 73G in an adjectival
epithet is treated as an error to be corrected.

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Orthography 73

Ex. 11.  Pereskia opuntiaeflora DC. is to be cited as P. opuntiiflora DC. However, in Andromeda
polifolia
L. (1753), the epithet is a pre-Linnean plant name ("Polifolia" Buxb.) used in apposition
and not an adjective; it is not to be corrected to "poliifolia".

Ex. 12.  Cacalia napeaefolia DC. and Senecio napeaefolius (DC.) Schultz-Bip. are to be cited as
Cacalia napaeifolia DC. and Senecio napaeifolius (DC.) Schultz-Bip. respectively; the specific
epithet refers to the resemblance of the leaves to those of the genus Napaea (not Napea), and the
substitute (connecting) vowel -i should have been used instead of the genitive singular inflection
-ae.

73.9.  The use of a hyphen in a compound epithet is treated as an error to be
corrected by deletion of the hyphen, except if an epithet is formed of words
that usually stand independently, when a hyphen is permitted (see Arts. 23.1
and 23.3).

Ex. 13.  Deletion of the hyphen: Acer pseudoplatanus L., not A. pseudo-platanus; Ficus neoëbuda-
rum
Summerh., not F. neo-ebudarum; Lycoperdon atropurpureum Vitt., not L. atro-purpureum;
Croton ciliatoglandulifer
Ortega, not C. ciliato-glandulifer; Scirpus sect. Pseudoëriophorum
Jurtzer, not S. sect. Pseudo-eriophorum.

Ex. 14.  Hyphen permitted: Aster novae-angliae L., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Peperomia san-felipensis
J. D. Smith, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Sprengel, Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. (Art. 23.3).

Note 2.  Art. 73.9 refers only to epithets (in combinations), not to names of genera or taxa in
higher ranks; a generic name published with a hyphen can be changed only by conservation.

Ex. 15.  Pseudo-salvinia Piton (1940).

73.10.  The use of a termination (for example -i, -ii, -ae, -iae, -anus, or -ianus)
contrary to
Rec. 73C.1 is treated as an error to be corrected (see also Art.
32.5).

Ex. 16.  Rosa pissarti Carrière (Rev. Hort. 1880: 314) is a typographic error for R. pissardi (see
Rev. Hort. 1881: 190), which in its turn is treated as an error for R. pissardii (see Rec. 73C.l(b)).

Note 3.  If the gender and/or number of a substantival epithet derived from a personal name is
inappropriate for the sex and/or number of the person(s) whom the name commemorates, the
termination is to be corrected in conformity with Rec. 73C.1.

Ex. 17.  Rosa ×toddii was named by Wolley-Dod (J. Bot. 69, suppl. 106. 1931) for "Miss E. S.
Todd"; the epithet is to be corrected to toddiae.

Ex. 18.  Astragalus matthewsii, dedicated by Podlech and Kirchhoff (Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml.
München 11: 432. 1974) to Victoria A. Matthews, is to be corrected to A. matthewsiae Podlech &
Kirchhoff; it is not therefore a later homonym of A. matthewsii S. Watson (see Agerer-Kirchhoff
& Podlech in Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 12: 375. 1976).

Ex. 19.  Codium geppii O. C. Schmidt (Biblioth. Bot. 23(91): 50. 1923), which commemorates "A.
& E. S. Gepp", is to be corrected to C. geppiorum.

Recommendation 73A

73A.1.  When a new name or epithet is to be derived from Greek, the transliteration to Latin
should conform to classical usage.

73A.2.  The spiritus asper should be transcribed in Latin as the letter h.

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73 Orthography

Recommendation 73B

73B.1.  When a new name for a genus, subgenus, or section is taken from the name of a person, it
should be formed as follows:

(a)  When the name of the person ends in a vowel, the letter -a is added (thus Ottoa after Otto;
      Sloanea after Sloane), except when the name ends in -a, when -ea is added (e.g. Collaea after
      Colla), or in -ea (as Correa), when no letter is added.

(b)  When the name of the person ends in a consonant, the letters -ia are added; when the name
      ends in -er, the terminations -ia and -a are both in use (e.g. Sesleria after Sesler and Kernera
      after Kerner).

(c)  In latinized personal names ending in -us this termination is dropped (e.g. Dillenia after
      Dillenius) before applying the procedure described under (a) and (b).

(d)  The syllables not modified by these endings retain their original spelling, unless they contain
      letters foreign to Latin plant names or diacritical signs (see Art. 73.6).

Note 1.  Names may be accompanied by a prefix or a suffix, or be modified by anagram or abbre-
viation. In these cases they count as different words from the original name.

Ex. 1.  Durvillaea and Urvillea; Lapeirousia and Peyrousea; Englera, Englerastrum, and Englerel-
la; Bouchea
and Ubochea; Gerardia and Graderia; Martia and Martiusia.

Recommendation 73C

73C.1.  Modern personal names may be given Latin terminations and used to form specific and
infraspecific epithets as follows (but see Rec. 73C.2):

(a)  If the personal name ends in a vowel or -er, substantive epithets are formed by adding the
       genitive inflection appropriate to the sex and number of the person(s) honoured (e.g., scopo-
       li-i for Scopoli (m), fedtschenko-i for Fedtschenko (m), glaziou-i for Glaziou (m), lace-ae for
       Lace (f), hooker-orum for the Hookers), except when the name ends in -a, in which case
       adding -e (singular) or -rum (plural) is appropriate (e.g. triana-e for Triana (m)).

(b)  If the personal name ends in a consonant (except -er), substantive epithets are formed by
       adding -i- (stem augmentation) plus the genitive inflection appropriate to the sex and number
       of the person(s) honoured (e.g. lecard-ii for Lecard (m), wilson-iae for Wilson (f), ver-
       lot-iorum for the Verlot brothers, braun-iarum for the Braun sisters).

(c)  If the personal name ends in a vowel, adjectival epithets are formed by adding -an- plus the
       nominative singular inflection appropriate to the gender of the generic name (e.g., Cyperus
       heyne-anus for Heyne, Vanda lindley-ana for Lindley, Aspidium bertero-anum for Bertero),
       except when the personal name ends in -a in which case -n- plus the appropriate inflection is
       added (e.g. balansa-nus (m), balansa-na (f), and balansa-num (n) for Balansa).

(d)  If the personal name ends in a consonant, adjectival epithets are formed by adding -i- (stem
       augmentation) plus -an- (stem of adjectival suffix) plus the nominative singular inflection
       appropriate to the gender of the generic name (e.g. Rosa webb-iana for Webb, Desmodium
       griffith-ianum for Griffith, Verbena hassler-iana for Hassler).

Note 1.  The hyphens in the above examples are used only to set off the total appropriate termina-
tion.

73C.2.  Personal names already in Greek or Latin, or possessing a well-established latinized form,
should be given their appropriate Latin genitive to form substantive epithets (e.g. alexandri from
Alexander or Alexandre, augusti from Augustus or August or Auguste, linnaei from Linnaeus,
martii from Martius, beatricis from Beatrix or Béatrice, hectoris from Hector). (However, modern
personal names are subject to the provisions of Art. 73.10.) Treating modern names as if they were
in Third Declension should be avoided (e.g. munronis from Munro, richardsonis from Richard-
son).

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Orthography 73

73C.3.  In forming new epithets based on personal names the original spelling of the personal
name should not be modified unless it contains letters foreign to Latin plant names or diacritical
signs (see Arts. 73.4 and 73.6).

73C.4.  Prefixes and particles ought to be treated as follows:

(a)  The Scottish patronymic prefix "Mac", "Mc" or "M’", meaning "son of", should be spelled "mac"
      and united with the rest of the name, e.g. macfadyenii after Macfadyen, macgillivrayi after
      MacGillivray, macnabii after McNab, mackenii after M’Ken.

(b)  The Irish patronymic prefix "O" should be united with the rest of the name or omitted, e.g.
      obrienii, brienianus after O’Brien, okellyi after O’Kelly.

(c)  A prefix consisting of an article, e.g. le, la, l’, les, el, il, lo, or containing an article e.g. du, de la,
      des, del, della, should be united to the name, e.g. leclercii after Le Clerc, dubuyssonii after
      DuBuysson, lafarinae after La Farina, logatoi after La Gato.

(d)  A prefix to a surname indicating ennoblement or canonization should be omitted, e.g. candol-
       lei after de Candolle, jussieui after de Jussieu, hilairei after Saint-Hilaire, remyi after St.
       Rémy; in geographical epithets, however, "St." is rendered as sanctus (m) or sancta (f), e.g.
       sancti-johannis, of St. John, sanctae-helenae, of St. Helena.

(e)  A German or Dutch prefix when it is normally treated as part of the family name, as often
       happens outside its country of origin, e.g. in the United States, may be included in the epithet,
       e.g. vonhausenii after Vonhausen, vanderhoekii after Vanderhoek, vanbruntiae after Mrs.
       Van Brunt, but should otherwise be omitted, e.g. iheringii after von Ihering, martii after von
       Martius, steenisii after van Steenis, strassenii after zu Strassen, vechtii after van der Vecht.

Recommendation 73D

73D.1.  An epithet derived from a geographical name is preferably an adjective and usually takes
the termination -ensis, -(a)nus, -inus, or -icus.

Ex. 1.  Rubus quebecensis (from Quebec), Ostrya virginiana (from Virginia), Eryngium amorgi-
num
(from Amorgos), Polygonum pensylvanicum (from Pennsylvania).

Recommendation 73E

73E.1.  A new epithet should be written in conformity with the original spelling of the word or
words from which it is derived and in accordance with the accepted usage of Latin and latinization
(see Art. 23.5).

Ex. 1.  sinensis (not chinensis).

Recommendation 73F

73F.1.  All specific and infraspecific epithets should be written with a small initial letter, although
authors desiring to use capital initial letters may do so when the epithets are directly derived from
the names of persons (whether actual or mythical), or are vernacular (or non-Latin) names, or are
former generic names.

Recommendation 73G

73G.1.  A compound name or an epithet which combines elements derived from two or more
Greek or Latin words should be formed, as far as practicable, in accordance with classical usage
(see Art. 73.8). This may be stated as follows:

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74 Orthography

(a)  In a true compound, a noun or adjective in non-final position appears as a compounding form
       generally obtained by

       (1removing the case ending of the genitive singular (Latin -ae, -i, -us, -is; Greek -os, -es, -as,
              -ous and the latter’s equivalent -eos) and

       (2)  before a consonant, adding a connecting vowel (-i- for Latin elements, -o- for Greek
              elements).

       (3 Exceptions are common, and one should review earlier usages of a particular compound-
              ing form.

(b)  A pseudocompound is a noun or adjectival phrase treated as if it were a single compound
       word. In a pseudocompound, a noun or adjective in a non-final position appears as a word
       with a case ending, not as a modified stem. Examples are: nidus-avis (nest of bird), Myos-otis
       (ear of mouse), cannae-folius (leaf of canna), albo-marginatus (margined with white), etc. In
       epithets where tingeing is expressed, the modifying initial colour often is in the ablative be-
       cause the preposition e, ex, is implicit, e.g., atropurpureus (blackish purple) from ex atro
       purpureus (purple tinged with black). Others have been deliberately introduced to reveal
       etymological differences when different word elements have the same compounding forms,
       such as tubi- from tube (tubus, tubi, stem tubo-) or from trumpet (tuba, tubae, stem tuba-)
       where tubaeflorus can only mean trumpet-flowered; also carici- is the compounding form
       from both papaya (carica, caricae, stem carica-) and sedge (carex, caricis, stem caric-) where
       caricaefolius can only mean papaya-leaved. The latter use of the genitive singular of the first
       declension for pseudocompounding is treated as an error to be corrected unless it makes an
       etymological distinction.

(c)  Some common irregular forms are used in compounding. Examples are hydro- and hydr-
       (Hydro-phyllum) where the regular noun stem is hydat-; calli- (Calli-stemon) where the
       regular adjective stem is calo-; and meli- (Meli-osma, Meli-lotus) where the regular noun stem
       is melit-.

Note 1.  The hyphens in the above examples are given solely for explanatory reasons. For the use
of hyphens in botanical names and epithets see Arts. 20.3, 23.1, and 73.9.

Recommendation 73H

73H.1.  Epithets of fungus names derived from the generic name of the host plant should be
spelled in accordance with the accepted spelling of this name; other spellings are regarded as
orthographic variants to be corrected (see Art. 75).

Ex. 1.  Phyllachora anonicola Chardon is to be altered to P. annonicola, since the spelling Annona
is now accepted in preference to Anona. – Meliola albizziae Hansford & Deighton is to be altered
to M. albiziae, since the spelling Albizia is now accepted in preference to Albizzia.

Recommendation 73I

73I.1.  The etymology of new names and epithets should be given when the meaning of these is not
obvious.

Article 74

[Article 74, dealing with variant spellings of Linnaean generic names, was
deleted by the Sydney Congress, 1981 (but see Art. 13.4).]

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Gender 75-76

Article 75

75.1.  Only one orthographic variant of any one name is treated as validly pub-
lished, the form which appears in the original publication except as provided in
Art. 73 (orthographic and typographic errors), Art. 14.10 (conserved spel-
lings), and Art. 32.5 (incorrect Latin terminations).

Note 1.  Orthographic variants are the various spelling, compounding, and inflectional forms of a
name or epithet (including typographic errors), only one type being involved.

75.2.  If orthographic variants of a name appear in the original publication, the
one that conforms to the rules and best suits the recommendations of Art. 73 is
to be retained; otherwise the first author who, in an effectively published text
(Arts. 29-30), explicitly adopts one of the variants, rejecting the other(s), must
be followed.

75.3.  The orthographic variants of a name are to be automatically corrected to
the validly published form of that name. Whenever such a variant appears in
print, it is to be treated as if it were printed in its corrected form.

Note 2.  In full citations it is desirable that the original form of an automatically corrected ortho-
graphic variant of a name be added (Rec. 50F).

75.4.  Confusingly similar names based on the same type are treated as ortho-
graphic variants. (For confusingly similar names based on different types, see
Art.
64.3.)

Ex. 1.  Geaster Fr. (1829) and Geastrum Pers. (1794) : Pers. (1801) are similar names with the
same type (Taxon 33: 498. 1984); they are treated as orthographic variants despite the fact that
they are derived from two different nouns, aster (asteris) and astrum (astri).

SECTION 2. GENDER OF GENERIC NAMES

Article 76

76.1.  A generic name retains the gender assigned by its author, unless this is
contrary to botanical tradition. The following names must be treated as femi-
nine in accordance with botanical tradition, irrespective of classical usage or
the author’s original usage: Adonis, Diospyros, Hemerocallis, Orchis, Stachys,
and Strychnos. Lotus and Melilotus must be treated as masculine.

Note 1.  Botanical tradition usually maintains the classical gender of a Greek or Latin word, when
this was well established.

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76 Gender

Ex. 1.  Although their ending suggests masculine gender, Cedrus and Fagus are feminine like most
other classical tree names; similarly, Rhamnus is feminine, despite the fact that Linnaeus gave it
masculine gender. Eucalyptus, a neologism, is also feminine, retaining the gender assigned by its
author. Phyteuma (neuter), Sicyos (masculine), and Erigeron (masculine) are other names for
which botanical usage has reestablished the classical gender despite another choice by Linnaeus.

The classical gender of Atriplex varied (e.g. feminine in Columella, neuter in Pliny) and Linnaeus
choice of feminine gender stands.

76.2.  Compound generic names take the gender of the last word in the nomi-
native case in the compound. If the termination is altered, however, the
gender is altered accordingly.

(a)  Modern compounds ending in -codon, -myces, -odon, -panax, -pogon,
       -stemon, and other masculine words are masculine, irrespective of the fact
       that the generic names Andropogon L. and Oplopanax (Torrey & A. Gray)
       Miq. were originally treated as neuter by their authors.

(b)  Similarly, all modern compounds ending in -achne, -chlamys, -daphne,
       -mecon, -osma (the modern transcription of the feminine Greek word
       osmé) and other feminine words are feminine, irrespective of the fact that
       Dendromecon Bentham and Hesperomecon E. Greene were originally
       ascribed the neuter gender. An exception is made in the case of names
       ending in -gaster, which strictly speaking ought to be feminine, but which
       are treated as masculine in accordance with botanical tradition.

(c)  Similarly, all modern compounds ending in -ceras, -dendron, -nema,
       -stigma, -stoma and other neuter words are neuter, irrespective of the fact
       that Robert Brown and Bunge respectively made Aceras and Xanthoceras
       feminine. An exception is made for names ending in -anthos (or -anthus)
       and -chilos (-chilus or -cheilos), which ought to be neuter, since that is the
       gender of the Greek words anthos and cheilos, but are treated as mascu-
       line are in accordance with botanical tradition.

Ex. 2.  Compound generic names in which the termination of the last word is altered: Stenocarpus,
Dipterocarpus, and all other modern compounds ending in the Greek masculine -carpos (or
-carpus), e.g. Hymenocarpos, are masculine; those in -carpa or -carpaea, however, are feminine,
e.g. Callicarpa and Polycarpaea; and those in -carpon, -carpum, or -carpium are neuter, e.g.
Polycarpon, Ormocarpum, and Pisocarpium.

76.3.  Arbitrarily formed generic names or vernacular names or adjectives used
as generic names, whose gender is not apparent, take the gender assigned to
them by their authors. If the original author failed to indicate the gender, the
next subsequent author may choose a gender, and his choice, if effectively
published (Arts. 29-31), is to be accepted.

Ex. 3.  Taonabo Aublet is feminine: Aublet’s two species were T. dentata and T. punctata.

Ex. 4.  Agati Adanson was published without indication of gender: the feminine gender was as-
signed to it by Desvaux (J. Bot. Agric. 1: 120. 1813), who was the first subsequent author to adopt
the name in an effectively published text, and his choice is to to be accepted.

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Gender 76

Ex. 5.  Boehmer (in Ludwig, Def. Gen. Pl. ed. 3. 436. 1760) and Adanson (Fam. Pl. 2: 356. 1763)
failed to indicate the gender of Manihot. Crantz (Inst. Rei Herb. 1: 167. 1766) was the first author
who, by publishing the names Manihot gossypiifolia, etc., indicated the gender of Manihot, and
Manihot is therefore to be treated as feminine.

76.4.  Generic names ending in -oides or -odes are treated as feminine and
those ending in -ites as masculine, irrespective of the gender assigned to them
by the original author.

Recommendation 76A

76A.1.  When a genus is divided into two or more genera, the gender of the new generic name
or names should be that of the generic name that is retained.

Ex. 1.  When Boletus is divided, the gender of the new generic names should be masculine: Xero-
comus
, Boletellus, etc.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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Div.III.1-Div.III.2 Modification of Code

 
 
 
 
 
 

DIVISION III. PROVISIONS FOR MODIFICATION OF THE CODE
 

Div.III.1.  Modification of the Code. The Code may be modified only by action
of a plenary session of an International Botanical Congress on a resolution
moved by the Nomenclature Section of that Congress.¹

Div.III.2.  Nomenclature Committees. Permanent Nomenclature Committees
are established under the auspices of the International Association for Plant
Taxonomy. Members of these committees are elected by an International
Botanical Congress. The Committees have power to co-opt and to establish
subcommittees; such officers as may be desired are elected.

(1)  General Committee, composed of the secretaries of the other commit-
        tees, the rapporteur-général, the president and the secretary of the Inter-
        national Association for Plant Taxonomy, and at least 5 members to be
        appointed by the Nomenclature Section. The rapporteur-général is
        charged with the presentation of nomenclature proposals to the Interna-
        tional Botanical Congress.

(2)  Committee for Spermatophyta.

(3)  Committee for Pteridophyta.

(4)  Committee for Bryophyta.

(5)  Committee for Fungi and Lichens.

(6)  Committee for Algae.

(7)  Committee for Hybrids.

(8)  Committee for Fossil Plants.

(9)  Editorial Committee, charged with the preparation and publication of the
        Code in conformity with the decisions adopted by the International Bo-
        tanical Congress. Chairman: the rapporteur-général of the previous Con-
        gress, who is charged with the general duties in connection with the edi-
        ting of the Code.

——————

1)   In the event that there should not be another International Botanical Congress, authority
       for the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature shall be transferred to the Interna-
       tional Union of Biological Sciences or to an organization at that time corresponding to it. The
       General Committee is empowered to define the machinery to achieve this.

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Modification of Code Div.III.3-Div.III.4

Div.III.3.  The Bureau of Nomenclature of the International Botanical Con-
gress. Its officers are: (1) the president of the Nomenclature Section, elected
by the organizing committee of the International Botanical Congress in ques-
tion; (2) the recorder, appointed by the same organizing committee; (3) the
rapporteur-général, elected by the previous Congress; (4) the vice-rapporteur,
elected by the organizing committee on the proposal of the rapporteur-géné-
ral.

Div.III.4.  The voting on nomenclature proposals is of two kinds: (a) a prelimi-
nary guiding mail vote and (b) a final and binding vote at the Nomenclature
Section of the International Botanical Congress.

Qualifications for voting:

(a)  Preliminary mail vote:

        (1)  The members of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy.

        (2)  The authors of proposals.

        (3)  The members of the nomenclature committees.

Note 1.  No accumulation or transfer of personal votes is permissible.

(b)  Final vote at the sessions of the Nomenclature Section:

        (1) All officially enrolled members of the Section. No accumulation or
        transfer of personal votes is permissible.

        (2) Official delegates or vice-delegates of the institutes appearing on a list
        drawn up by the Bureau of Nomenclature of the International Botanical
        Congress and submitted to the General Committee for final approval;
        such institutes are entitled to 1-7 votes, as specified on the list.¹ Transfer
        of institutional votes to specified vice-delegates is permissible, but no
        single person will be allowed more than 15 votes, his personal vote in-
        cluded. Institutional votes may be deposited at the Bureau of Nomencla-
        ture to be counted in a specified way for specified proposals.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

——————

1)  The Sydney Congress directed that no single institution, even in the wide sense of the term,
       shall be entitled to more than 7 votes.

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H.1-H.3 Hybrids

 
 
 
 
 
 

APPENDIX I
 
 

NAMES OF HYBRIDS

Article H.1

H.1.1.  Hybridity is indicated by the use of the multiplication sign ×, or by the
addition of the prefix "notho-"¹ to the term denoting the rank of the taxon.

Article H.2

H.2.1.  A hybrid between named taxa may be indicated by placing the multipli-
cation sign between the names of the taxa; the whole expression is then called
a hybrid formula.

Ex. 1.  Agrostis L. × Polypogon Desf.; Agrostis stolonifera L. × Polypogon monspeliensis (L.)
Desf.; Salix aurita L. × S. caprea L.; Mentha aquatica L. × M. arvensis L. × M spicata L.; Polypo-
dium vulgare
subsp. prionodes Rothm. × subsp. vulgare.

Recommendation H.2A

H.2A.1.  It is usually preferable to place the names or epithets in a formula in alphabetical order.
The direction of a cross may be indicated by including the sexual symbols (♀: female; ♂: male) in
the formula, or by placing the female parent first. If a non-alphabetical sequence is used, its basis
should be clearly indicated.

Article H.3

H.3.1.  Hybrids between representatives of two or more taxa may receive a
name. For nomenclatural purposes, the hybrid nature of a taxon is indicated by
placing the multiplication sign × before the name of an intergeneric hybrid or
before the epithet in the name of an interspecific hybrid, or by prefixing the
term "notho-" (optionally abbreviated "n-") to the term denoting the rank of the
taxon (see Arts. 3.2 and 4.3). All such taxa are designated nothotaxa.

——————

1)  From the Greek nothos, meaning hybrid.

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Hybrids H.4

Ex. 1.  (The putative or known parentage is found in Art. H.2, Ex.1.) ×Agropogon P. Fourn.;
×Agropogon littoralis (Smith) C. E. Hubb.; Salix ×capreola Kerner ex Andersson; Mentha ×smith-
iana
R. A. Graham; Polypodium vulgare nothosubsp. mantoniae (Rothm.) Schidlay.

H.3.2.  A nothotaxon cannot be designated unless at least one parental taxon is
known or can be postulated.

H.3.3.  The epithet in the name of a nothospecies is termed a collective epithet.

H.3.4.  For purposes of homonymy and synonymy the multiplication sign and
the prefix "notho-" are disregarded.

Ex. 2.  ×Hordelymus Bacht. & Darevskaja (1950) ( = Elymus L. × Hordeum L.) is a later homonym
of Hordelymus (Jessen) Jessen (1885).

Note 1.  Taxa which are believed to be of hybrid origin need not be designated as nothotaxa.

Ex. 3.  The true-breeding tetraploid raised from the artificial cross Digitalis grandiflora L. × D.
purpurea
L. may, if desired, be referred to as D. mertonensis Buxton & Darl.; Triticum aestivum
L. is treated as a species although it is not found in nature and its genome has been shown to be
composed of those of T. monococcum, Aegilops speltoides, and A. squarrosa; the taxon known as
Phlox divaricata subsp. laphamii (Wood) Wherry is believed by Levin (Evolution 21: 92-108. 1967)
to be a stabilized product of hybridization between P. divaricata L. subsp. divaricata and P. pilosa
subsp. ozarkana Wherry; Rosa canina L., a polyploid believed to be of ancient hybrid origin, is
treated as a species.

Note 2.  The term "collective epithet" is used in the International Code of Nomenclature for
Cultivated Plants-1980 to include also epithets in modern language.

Recommendation H.3A

H.3A.1.  The multiplication sign in the name of a nothotaxon should be placed against the initial
letter of the name or epithet. However, if the mathematical symbol is not available and the letter x
is used instead, a single letter space may be left between it and the epithet if this helps to avoid
ambiguity. The letter x should be in lower case.

Article H.4

H.4.1.  When all the parent taxa can be postulated or are known, a nothotaxon
is circumscribed so as to include all individuals (as far as they can be recog-
nized) derived from the crossing of representatives of the stated parent taxa
(i.e. not only the but subsequent filial generations and also back-crosses and
combinations of these). There can thus be only one correct name correspond-
ing to a particular hybrid formula; this is the earliest legitimate name (see Art.
6.3) in the appropriate rank (Art. H.5), and other names to which the same
hybrid formula applies are synonyms of it.

Ex. 1.  The names Oenothera ×wienii Renner ex Rostański (1977) and O. ×hoelscheri Renner ex
Rostański (1968) are both considered to apply to the hybrid O. rubricaulis ×O. depressa; the types
of the two nothospecific names are known to differ by a whole gene-complex; nevertheless, the
later name is treated as a synonym of the earlier.

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H.5-H.6 Hybrids

Note 1.  Variation within nothospecies and nothotaxa of lower rank may be treated according to
Art. H.12 or, if appropriate, according to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated
Plants-1980.

Article H.5

H.5.1.  The appropriate rank of a nothotaxon is that of the postulated or known
parent taxa.

H.5.2.  If the postulated or known parent taxa are of unequal rank the appro-
priate rank of the nothotaxon is the lowest of these ranks.

Note 1.  When a taxon is designated by a name in a rank inappropriate to its hybrid formula, the
name is incorrect in relation to that hybrid formula but may nevertheless be correct, or may be-
come correct later (see also Art. 63 Note 3).

Ex. 1.  The combination Elymus ×laxus (Fries) Melderis & D. McClintock, based on Triticum
laxum
Fries, was published for hybrids with the formula E. farctus subsp. boreoatlanticus (Si-
monet & Guinochet) Melderis × E. repens (L.) Gould, so that the combination is in a rank inap-
propriate to the hybrid formula. It is, however, the correct name applicable to all hybrids between
E. farctus (Viv.) Melderis and E repens.

Ex. 2.  Radcliffe-Smith incorrectly published the nothospecific name Euphorbia ×cornubiensis for
E. amygdaloides L. × E. characias subsp. wulfenii (Koch) A. R. Sm., although the correct designa-
tion for hybrids between E. amygdaloides and E. characias is E. ×martini Rouy; later, he remedied
his mistake by publishing the combination E. ×martini nothosubsp. cornubiensis (A. R. Sm.) A. R.
Sm. However, the name E. ×cornubiensis is potentially correct for hybrids with the formula E.
amygdaloides
× E. wulfenii.

Recommendation H.5A

H.5A.1.  When publishing a name of a new nothotaxon at the rank of species or below, authors
should provide any available information on the taxonomic identity, at lower ranks, of the known
or postulated parent plants of the type of the name.

Article H.6

H.6.1.  A nothogeneric name (i.e. the name at generic rank for a hybrid be-
tween representatives of two or more genera) is a condensed formula or is
equivalent to a condensed formula.

H.6.2.  The nothogeneric name of a bigeneric hybrid is a condensed formula in
which the names adopted for the parental genera are combined into a single
word, using the first part or the whole of one, the last part or the whole of the
other (but not the whole of both) and, if desirable, a connecting vowel.

Ex. 1.  ×Agropogon P. Fourn. (= Agrostis × Polypogon); × Gymnanacamptis Asch. & Graebner
(= Anacamptis × Gymnadenia); ×Cupressocyparis Dallimore (= Chamaecyparis × Cupressus);
×Seleniphyllum Rowley (= Epiphyllum × Selenicereus).

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Hybrids H.7

Ex. 2.  ×Amarcrinum Coutts (1925) is correct for Amaryllis L. × Crinum L., not ×Crindonna Ra-
gion. (1921). The latter name was proposed for the same nothogenus, but was formed from
the generic name adopted for one parent (Crinum) and a synonym (Belladonna Sweet) of the generic
name adopted for the other (Amaryllis). Being contrary to Art. H.6, it is not validly published
under Art. 32.1(b).

Ex. 3.  The name ×Leucadenia Schlechter is correct for Leucorchis E. Meyer × Gymnadenia R.
Br., but if the generic name Pseudorchis Séguier is adopted instead of Leucorchis, ×Pseudadenia
P. Hunt is correct.

Ex. 4.  ×Aporophyllum Johnson when first published was defined as Aporocactus × members of
the "Orchid Cacti". The latter constitute the epicacti ("epiphyllums" of horticulture) — a complex
descended from 4 or 5 separate genera. This name is hence not validly published (32.1(b))
because it conflicts with Art. H.6.3. For the bigeneric hybrid Aporocactus × Epiphyllum a different
name applies( ×Aporepiphyllum Rowley).

Ex. 5.  Boivin (1967) published ×Maltea for what he considered to be the intergeneric hybrid
Phippsia × Puccinellia. As this is not a condensed formula, the name cannot be used for that
intergeneric hybrid, for which the correct name is ×Pucciphippsia Tzvelev (1971). Boivin did,
however, provide a Latin description and designate a type; consequently, Maltea is a validly
published generic name and is correct if its type is treated as belonging to a separate genus, not to
a nothogenus.

H.6.3.  The nothogeneric name of an intergeneric hybrid derived from four or
more genera is formed from the name of a person to which is added the termi-
nation -ara; no such name may exceed eight syllables. Such a name is regarded
as a condensed formula.

Ex. 6.  ×Potinara Charlesworth & Co. (= Brassavola × Cattleya × Laelia × Sophronitis).

H.6.4.  The nothogeneric name of a trigeneric hybrid is either (a) a condensed
formula in which the three names adopted for the parental genera are com-
bined into a single word not exceeding eight syllables, using the whole or first
part of one, followed by the whole or any part of another, followed by the
whole or last part of the third (but not the whole of all three) and, if desirable,
one or two connecting vowels, or (b) a name formed like that of a nothogenus
derived from four or more genera, i.e., from a personal name to which is added
the termination -ara.

Ex. 7.  ×Sophrolaeliocattleya Hurst (= Cattleya × Laelia × Sophronitis); × Vascostylis Takakura
(= Ascocentrum × Rhynchostylis × Vanda); ×Rodrettiopsis Moir (= Comparettia × Ionopsis ×
Rodriguezia); ×Wilsonara Charlesworth & Co. (= Cochlioda × Odontoglossum × Oncidium).

Recommendation H.6A

H.6A.1.  When a nothogeneric name is formed from the name of a person by adding the termina-
tion -ara, that person should preferably be a collector, grower, or student of the group.

Article H.7

H.7.1.  The name of a nothotaxon which is a hybrid between subdivisions of a
genus is a combination of an epithet, which is a condensed formula formed in
the same way as a nothogeneric name (Art. H.6.2), with the name of the genus.

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H.8-H.9 Hybrids

Ex. 1.  Ptilostemon nothosect. Platon Greuter (Boissiera 22: 159. 1973), comprising hybrids
between Ptilostemon sect. Platyrhaphium Greuter and P. sect. Ptilostemon; Ptilostemon notho-
sect. Plinia Greuter (Boissiera 22: 158. 1973), comprising hybrids between Ptilostemon sect.
Platyrhaphium and P. sect. Cassinia Greuter.

Article H.8

H.8.1.  When the name or the epithet in the name of a nothotaxon is a con-
densed formula (Arts. H.6 and H.7), the parental names used in its formation
must be those which are correct for the particular circumscription, position,
and rank accepted for the parental taxa.

Ex. 1.  If the genus Triticum L. is interpreted on taxonomic grounds as including Triticum (s. str.)
and Agropyron Gaertner, and the genus Hordeum L. as including Hordeum (s. str.) and Elymus
L, then hybrids between Agropyron and Elymus as well as between Triticum (s. str.) and Hor-
deum
(s. str.) are placed in the same nothogenus, ×Tritordeum Asch. & Graebner (1902). If,
however, Agropyron is separated generically from Triticum, hybrids between Agropyron and
Hordeum (s. str. or s. lat.) are placed in the nothogenus ×Agrohordeum A. Camus (1927). Similar-
ly, if Elymus is separated generically from Hordeum, hybrids between Elymus and Triticum (s. str.
or s. lat.) are placed in the nothogenus ×Elymotriticum P. Fourn. (1935). If both Agropyron and
Elymus are given generic rank, hybrids between them are placed in the nothogenus ×Agroelymus
A. Camus (1927); ×Tritordeum is then restricted to hybrids between Hordeum (s. str.) and Triti-
cum
(s. str.), and hybrids between Elymus and Hordeum are placed in ×Elyhordeum Mansf. ex
Tsitsin & Petrova (1955), a substitute name for ×Hordelymus Bacht. & Darevskaja (1950) non
Hordelymus (Jessen) Jessen (1885).

H.8.2.  Names ending in -ara for nothogenera, which are equivalent to con-
densed formulae (Art. H.6.3-H.6.4), are applicable only to plants which are ac-
cepted taxonomically as derived from the parents named.

Ex. 2.  If Euanthe is recognized as a distinct genus, hybrids simultaneously involving its only
species, E. sanderiana, and the three genera Arachnis, Renanthera, and Vanda must be placed in
×Cogniauxara Garay & H. Sweet; if on the other hand E. sanderiana is included in Vanda, the
same hybrids are placed in ×Holttumara hort. (Arachnis × Renanthera × Vanda).

Article H.9

H.9.1.  In order to be validly published, the name of a nothogenus or of a
nothotaxon with the rank of subdivision of a genus (Arts. H.6 and H.7) must be
effectively published (see Art. 29) with a statement of the names of the parent
genera or subdivisions of genera, but no description or diagnosis is necessary,
whether in Latin or in any other language.

Ex. 1.  Validly published names: ×Philageria Masters (1872), published with a statement of paren-
tage, Lapageria × Philesia; Eryngium nothosect. Alpestria Burdet & Miège, pro sect. (Candollea
23: 116. 1968), published with a statement of its parentage, Eryngium sect. Alpina × sect. Cam-
pestria;
×Agrohordeum A. Camus (1927) (= Agropyron Gaertner × Hordeum L.), of which
×Hordeopyron Simonet (1935, "Hordeopyrum") is a later synonym.

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Hybrids H.10

Note 1.  Since the names of nothogenera and nothotaxa with the rank of a subdivision of a genus
are condensed formulae or treated as such, they do not have types.

Ex. 2.  The name ×Ericalluna bealei Krüssm. (1960) was published for plants which were thought
to be variants of the cross Calluna vulgaris × Erica cinerea. If it is considered that these are not
hybrids, but are forms of Erica cinerea, the name ×Ericalluna Krüssm. remains available for use if
and when known or postulated plants of Calluna × Erica should appear.

Ex. 3.  ×Arabidobrassica Gleba & Fr. Hoffm. (Naturwissenschaften 66: 548. 1979), a nothogeneric
name which was validly published with a statement of parentage for the result of somatic hybridi-
zation by protoplast fusion of Arabidopsis thaliana with Brassica campestris, is also available for
intergeneric hybrids resulting from normal crosses between Arabidopsis and Brassica, should any
be produced.

Note 2.  However, names published merely in anticipation of the existence of a hybrid are not
validly published under Art. 34.1(b).

Article H.10

H.10.1.  Names of nothotaxa at the rank of species or below must conform with
the provisions (a) in the body of the Code applicable to the same ranks and (b)
in Art. H.3. Infringements of Art. H.3.1. are treated as errors to be corrected.

H.10.2.  Taxa previously published as species or infraspecific taxa which are
later considered to be nothotaxa may be indicated as such, without change of
rank, in conformity with Arts. 3 and 4 and by the application of Art. 50 (which
also operates in the reverse direction).

H.10.3.  The following are considered to be formulae and not true epithets:
designations consisting of the epithets of the names of the parents combined in
unaltered form by a hyphen, or with only the termination of one epithet
changed, or consisting of the specific epithet of the name of one parent com-
bined with the generic name of the other (with or without change of termina-
tion).

Ex. 1.  The designation Potentilla atrosanguinea-pedata published by Maund (Bot. Gard. 5: no.
385, t. 97. 1833) is considered to be a formula meaning Potentilla atrosanguinea Lodd. ex D. Don ×
P. pedata Nestler.

Ex. 2.  Verbascum nigro-lychnitis Schiede (Pl. Hybr. 40. 1825) is considered to be a formula, Ver-
bascum lychnitis
L. × V. nigrum L.; the correct binary name for this hybrid is Verbascum ×schie-
deanum
Koch (1844).

Ex. 3.  The following names include true epithets: Acaena ×anserovina Orch. (1969) (from anseri-
nifolia
and ovina); Micromcria ×benthamineolens Svent. (1969) (from benthamii and pineolens ).

Note 1.  Since the name of a nothotaxon at the rank of species or below has a type, statements of
parentage play a secondary part in determining the application of the name.

Ex. 4.  Quercus ×deamii Trel. was described as Q. alba L. × Q. muehlenbergii Engelm. However,
progeny grown from acorns from the type tree led Bartlett to conclude that the parents were in
fact Q. macrocarpa Michx. and Q. muehlenbergii. If this conclusion is accepted, the name Q.
×deamii applies to Q. macrocarpa × Q. muehlenbergii and not to Q. alba × Q. muehlenbergii.

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H.11-H.12 Hybrids

Recommendation H.10A

H.10A.1.  In forming epithets for nothotaxa at the rank of species and below, authors should avoid
combining parts of the epithets of the names of the parents.

Recommendation H.10B

H.10B.1.  When contemplating the publication of new names for hybrids between named infraspe-
cific taxa, authors should carefully consider whether they are really needed, bearing in mind that
formulae, though more cumbersome, are more informative.

Article H.11

H.11.1.  The name of a nothospecies of which the postulated or known parent
species belong to different genera is a combination of a nothospecific (collec-
tive) epithet with a nothogeneric name.

Ex. 1.  ×Heucherella tiarelloides (Lemoine) Wehrh. ex Stearn (considered to be Heuchera ×brizo-
ides
hort. × Tiarella cordifolia L., for which Heuchera ×tiarelloides Lemoine is incorrect).

Ex. 2.  When Orchis fuchsii Druce was renamed Dactylorhiza fuchsii (Druce) Soó the name ×Or-
chicoeloglossum mixtum
Asch. & Graebner (for its hybrid with Coeloglossum viride (L.) Hart-
man) became the basis of the necessary new combination ×Dactyloglossum mixtum (Asch. &
Graebner) Rauschert (1969).

H.11.2.  The epithet of an infraspecific nothotaxon, of which the postulated or
known parental taxa are assigned to different taxa at a higher rank, may be
placed subordinate to the name of a nothotaxon at that higher rank (see Art.
24.1). If this higher-ranking nothotaxon is a nothospecies the name of the sub-
ordinate nothotaxon is a combination of its epithet with the nothospecific name
(but see Rec. H.10B).

Ex. 3.  Mentha ×piperita L. nothosubsp. piperita (= M. aquatica L × M spicata L subsp. spicata);
Mentha ×piperita nothosubsp. pyramidalis (Ten.) R. Harley (= M. aquatica L. × M. spicata subsp.
tomentosa (Briq.) R. Harley).

Article H.12

H.12.1.  Subordinate taxa within nothotaxa of specific or infraspecific rank may
be recognized without an obligation to specify parent taxa at the subordinate
rank. In this case non-hybrid infraspecific categories of the appropriate rank
are used.
 

Ex. 1.  Mentha ×piperita forma hirsuta Sole; Populus ×canadensis var. serotina (Hartig) Rehder
and P. ×canadensis var. marilandica (Poiret) Rehder (see also Art. H.4, Note 1).

Note 1.  As there is no statement of parentage at the rank concerned there is no control of circum-
scription at this rank by parentage (compare Art. H.4.).

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Hybrids H.12

Note 2.  It is not feasible to treat subdivisions of nothospecies by the methods of both Art. H.10
and H.12.1 at the same rank.

H.12.2.  Names published at the rank of nothomorph¹ are treated as having
been published as names of varieties (see Art. 50).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

——————

1)   Previous editions of the Code (1978, Art. H.10, and the corresponding article in earlier
       editions) permitted only one rank under provisions equivalent to H.12. That rank was equiva-
       lent to variety and the category was termed "nothomorph".

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      [ Not present in this edition ]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

   
             [ sic ]